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Topic 8. The theory of the tourism product.

The purpose of the lectures: Review of the specifics of tourism products as a commodity on the market of tourist services.

Keywords: tourism product, shop tours


1. The essence, the definition and characteristics of the tourism product

2. Definition of the tourist product

3. Tourist services and a tourist product. Their interaction


The essence, the definition and characteristics of the tourism product. The modern tourism industry is one of the largest high-yield and fastest growing industries in the world economy. The tourist industry of Kazakhstan - it is a complex inter-industry complex, including:

-hotels and other tourist accommodation facilities (boarding houses, recreation, etc..)

catering: restaurants, cafes, bars, etc.

-Transport (air and bus transport, rail transport)

-tour operators, tourist product forming, Travel Agency, specializing in the sale of a tourist product,

tour operators and guides interpreters, specializing in the provision of excursion and organizational services.

For exsample, the Russian Federation, despite its high tourism potential, yet occupies an insignificant place in the global tourism market with a share of about 1% of world tourist flow (6.8 mln. Tourists visited Russia, from 698 million. World international tourist arrivals).

The main countries supplying tourists to the Russian Federation, are Finland, Germany, USA, UK, France and Italy. Data on average daily expenditure WTO tourists from ten major donor countries, as well as information on the State Statistical Committee of tourist arrivals were given the opportunity to determine the approximate costs of their trips to Russia, which in 2003. amounted to $ 374 million. US, with an average length of stay of 6.5 days, with the majority using the services of national Russian carriers. Guides tourist markets are characterized, on the one hand, high purchasing power, and on the other hand, consumer sophistication in matters of tourism supply and high requirements for the quality of service.

This is the basis for a clearer focus and more intensive marketing major sending countries, including especially targeted promotional activities. Properly built a marketing strategy focused on key guiding tourist markets, inbound tourism will make the most profitable component of the entire tourism sector in Russia. It is therefore necessary to study of the functioning of the tourist market, the specifics of the tourist product and tourist services, the rules of tourist services.

Tourism has its own specific features that distinguish it from other forms of trade in services. The term "tourist product" can be considered as a narrow and a broad sense. The tourist product in the narrow sense - is the service of each particular sector of the tourist industry (hotel product, the product of the tour operator, airline, etc.). In a broad sense - a set of goods and services that together form a tourist trip.

Therefore, the specific promotion of the tourist product to the market due to the essence of the tourist product and its features as a form of service. These features are in direct contact with the customer, working with foreign partners, high quality service, the increasing saturation of the market and consumer demands, the volatility of demand, the intangibility of the tourist product. All of the above has a significant influence on decision-making and research management in tourism.

The definition of a tourist product. In the market of tourist services is the product tour - a range of services, the right to take advantage of that offer to the customer. The complex is the product of a travel company that creates its intermediate products - the organization moving, food, accommodation, excursions and others.

The product is a tourist firm intangible product that allows some modern scholars (including Kotler) 2 say that the product of the tourism industry are memories. On the other hand, the tourism product is a complex material services (accommodation, meals), provided with a huge financial base.

This contradiction is due to the fact that the product of the tourism industry - a right of temporary use of the base, which is not done for product consumption (for example, a room in a hotel Unlike apartments).

Tour as a set (package) services consists of a set of "semi-finished", which can also be defined as products of the tourism industry, bearing an intermediate character. Created by the tourist product is subject to a number of laws that apply to other groups of products, such as product life cycle (Fig. 1):

profit development of the maturity of the launch of the decline. Thus, one can distinguish types of products depending on the stage of the life cycle. It imposes a first constraint on the company's product strategy: in the product portfolio of the company must be products at different stages of the life cycle, as otherwise the company is short-lived.

The legal relations in tourism activities may be regarded as a relationship to provide (supply and sales) between tourist services:

tourist agencies and tourists (customers, consumer of tourist services);

Tourism companies and other organizations in contact with it.

Thus, the participants of legal relations in tourism are:

Tourism company (travel agency, Tourism Organization) - tourist (the customer, the consumer of tourist services), organization, interacting with the tour company.

Contractual relations of tourists and tourist firms are added as the relationship of the buyer (customer) and a seller (performer). It should emphasize the special character of the "product", purchased from a tour company. Entering her into a contractual relationship, the tourist expects to eventually get him the necessary range of services. The company also provides him, as a rule, is still not the services, and the rights (guarantees) receiving at a certain time in a certain place services directly (physically) undertaken by other companies, but have a direct contractual, relations with the tourists, but have contractual relations with "his" tour of the firm (for example, the guarantee hotel of a certain class, two meals, transfers, excursions according to the program, etc.). In particular, it refers to the provision of guarantees and the purchase of certain types of services, and a tour of the firm itself "their" tourists (eg, maintenance of the route, meeting representatives of the company in the intermediate points of the route, etc.). As a rule, acquired the totality of tourist rights (guarantees) issued "his" tour of the firm in the form of vouchers.

Thus, the permit is the final "product" activity tour company and, accordingly, subject to its implementation. It is a set of rights (guarantees) obtaining a tourist quantitatively and qualitatively certain services. The question of what exactly constitutes a permit, is far from being an abstract character.

Since the subject of the contract the tour company to tourists is precisely the acquisition of the latter rights (guarantees), decorated usually in the form of vouchers, then, respectively, and the turnover of sales of products from a tour of the company is formed in the period when there was a sale of tickets, but not when a tourist trip will take place on this tour.

Receiving a tourist service itself is a process of consumption of tourists already purchased "products". Naturally, the possibility remains for the tourist claims against the travel agency that sold him the ticket, in the case of non-receipt or receipt is not the full service guarantee of which he bought from the tour company.

Such a right exists among consumers who have purchased any products, not just the ticket. In this case the seller (performer), there is no reason to believe their "products" unrealized just because, perhaps, once it something on it will make claims.

So, from the perspective of the subject of the contract between the tourist and tourist activity by first expressed in the sale of vouchers.

However, from the point of view of the subject of the contract between the tourist and the others, not only tourist firms in the activities of tour companies are possible options. These options differ primarily by the fact that it is the tour company acquires from other organizations in order to carry out its activities.

Tourism is the most significant features is divided into separate species. Among these features are: the purpose of travel, method of travel, the intensity of tourist traffic, the duration of travel, the nature of the organization of travel, etc.

Depending on the purpose of the trip are the following kinds of tourism: recreational, educational, recreational, scientific, business, sports recreation, shopping tours, adventure, pilgrimage, exotic, eco-tourism, etc.

Recreational tourism is characterized by a long journey, a small number of cities included in the route, the wide use of air transport. Cognitive tourism acts as the memories and intelligence. Wellness vacation depending on the means of human exposure is divided into climatology, sea-, mud, etc. Business (business trip for business purposes) is the most dynamic and profitable type of tourism. Therefore, many states tend to host international forums and conferences. Relatively new in the international business is scientific tourism. Educational trips abroad have become one of the established segments of the regions.

By way of movement of tourists are distinguished: a pedestrian, air, sea, river, trailering, rail, cycling and mixed. The intensity of tourist flows distinguish permanent and seasonal tourism. For the duration of the tourists traveling emit short-and long-lasting tourism. By the nature of the organization of travel isolated individual, group, organized and amateur (informal) and t.p5.

There are factors that determine the development of tourism and tourist flows form the focus. Favorable factors result in a region or country to be a leader in world tourism, adverse - reduced tourist traffic. Such factors need to be installed as closely as possible for each segment rynka6.

External circumstances include the effectiveness of tourism statistics (constant over time) and dynamic factors.

The group includes statistical climatic, geographic, cultural and historical factors.

Attractive holiday destination is primarily determined by these conditions. It is no accident southern regions with warm climates have a surplus under "tourism", while in all the Nordic countries, be it Russia or the Scandinavian countries, the balance - negative. Historical and cultural resources are becoming increasingly important with the growth of education and cognitive needs people.7.

By the dynamic factors include: social and demographic change, the financial and economic development, the political situation in the country and logistical factors.

So, summing up, said that the main product of the company is a tourist tour. Tour - is formed by a set of basic and additional services provided by the tourist, depending on the purpose of travel. Property right on a tour designed to implement the tourist called tourist product (tourist product).

The next section describes the features of the interaction of tourism services and tourism product.

Tourist services and a tourist product. Their interaction. Before considering the specifics of the interaction of the tourist product and tourist services should define the basic concepts.

The scope of services provided by the travel company involves the allocation basic (specialized) services for tourist services and support services to ensure proper carrying out of the tour.

The basic (core) services of travel agencies include:

choose the type of tourism and travel itinerary (recreation);

clarification of the number of days of the tour;

Hotel Offers;

catering services;

selection of the trailer (the means of delivery of tourists);

cultural program;

Tour pricing based discount system.

It should be noted some peculiarities of the provision of specialized tourist services.

By the number of days tours can be divided into three categories:

short-term (2-5 days)

medium-term (6-14 days)

long (over 2 weeks).

The most popular medium tours. When deciding where tourists usually stay oriented to the 3-, 4- and 5-star hotels, which are selected depending on the price and the client's solvency. Catering on the tour involves the following options:

one meal (usually breakfast);

half board (two meals a day, usually breakfast and dinner);

board (breakfast, lunch, dinner).

The main way to transport tourists to the resort in the international rounds is usually the air flight, at least - a journey by sea or by rail. In domestic tours as a trailer, usually used trains and planes; rarely practiced river and sea cruises, vehicles.

When filling out the line "hotel" to indicate its category in accordance with the classification that exists in the country's upcoming trip. Abstract mention some "stars" is not enough, because in every country they have their content substantially different even from neighboring countries. If there is no visual catalog and booklets own tour company, a tourist it is better to find out the full range of services of the hotel where it is located, what kind of services will be set in the room: a bath, air conditioning and so on. The tour company has the right to expand the content of the typical tour, but should not exclude any of the items contained in it.

Disputes rendered tourist services are permitted in accordance with the Civil Code, arbitration, and arbitration-procedural legislation.

In preparing each of the plans should take into account the specificity of services as a commodity. Thus, the development of product policy must take into account that consumers themselves are involved in the provision of services. In addition, the professionalism of the company is seen as an integral part of the production, as their qualification depends ultimately, whether the services the company of sufficient quality that it can compete successfully in the market.

The main place in the commodity policy of firms providing services, plans to take:

to increase the competitiveness of services and the management of its quality;

formation of the range of services and management;

Extension of the life cycle management services;

innovation policies.

Considering the service as a commodity, marketers developed a theory, called the model package. In accordance with this theory, the product services described as a package or a set of services, and which together form a total product, comprising:

basic services;

Support Services;

supporting services.

Summary - this is the service for which the company enters the market.

Support services contribute to the consumption of basic and main task of supporting services is to make the main more attractive, to increase its value, compared to distinguish the services of competitors. There is a difference between supporting and auxiliary services. From the subsidiary can not be waived, as in this case, the entire package will cease to exist and support are not necessary, but their use may be a prerequisite for the formation of competitive advantage. If the main service provided by the company are passenger air service, then as auxiliary services can be viewed registration at the airport, and support - the demonstration of the film during the flight. However, sometimes one and the same service (for example, on-board power supply) with one set of circumstances during long distance flights can be classified as auxiliary, while others (for short-haul flights) - the category of support.

In the development of product policy a lot of attention is paid to improving the competitiveness of services and the management of its quality.

Under competitive services is a set of consumer services, and cost characteristics that determine its success in the market, ie, This is an advantage over other services in the face of increasing competition. On competitiveness is influenced by many factors, one of which - the quality of services, which includes the concept of the technical and functional quality, and depending on the company image.

The technical quality of the provided service package that the company offers to the customer. For the client to consume a service, it is necessary that it is technically available and provides the expected result.

However, the client is important not only result from the consumption of services, but also the process of consumption, during which it comes into contact with the staff of the company and its technical resources, if the service is provided by the machine or car. What happens in the process of consumption of services, determines its functional quality.

Quality of service - a measure of how well the level of service meets the expectations of the client. Hence the importance of the criteria are used by consumers to evaluate the quality of services. In his studies, marketers allocate ten such criteria.

Five of them are used in the evaluation of the final result (technical grade), and five others - in the evaluation of service delivery (functional quality).

The first group of criteria include:

Reliability (determines the firm's ability to perform the promised service accurately and precisely);

accessibility (characterized by the possibility of customer services without long waiting times);

Security (estimates are not subjected to any given service customer danger or risk, is not questionable);

trust (shows how much you can trust the company or persons, the service provider);

understanding of the client (the company appreciates the efforts aimed at getting to know their customers and understand their needs).

The second group of criteria include:

response (characterized by the desire and the desire of the company employees help customers in solving their problems);

Competence (determines the extent to which staff have the skills and knowledge necessary for a qualified Service);

courtesy (shows how kind and courteous employees of the firm, how much they care for their clients);

physical environment (the tangible component evaluates the services: interior lighting, appearance of personnel, etc.);

Communication (characterizes the system of information support of the firm).

Intangible nature of services leads to the fact that the buyer is having difficulty evaluating it, so he often relies on appearances, and the huge role is played by the company's image. The company must not only offers professional services rendered, it should make a good impression. If an unattractive image of the company, the consumer is unlikely to be interested in its products. In this case, the company would not even be possible to demonstrate a high level of technical and functional quality of its services.


Control questions: 1. Travel business. 2. Tourism and nature protection.? 3. What is the Shopping tours?


Recommended reading:

1. AF Naumov Baksan Valley. (Tsenr. Caucasus) - M .: Mr. P. and Sports, 2001. - 200c.

2. Sevastyanov SA Regional planning development of tourism and hotel industry: educational posobie.- M: KNORUS, 2010.- 256c.

3. Bhanumurthy K .V, Abha Mathur. Tourism Concept&Perspectives. India. http://www.academia.edu/6814940/TOURISM_CONCEPT_and_PERSPECTIVES


Date: 2016-03-03; view: 3593

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