 Representing relations using matricesA relation between finite sets can be represented using a zeroone matrix. Suppose that R is a relation from to . The relation R can be represented by the matrix , where .
In other words, the zeroone matrix representing R has a 1 as its (i, j) entry when a_{i} is related to b_{j}, and a 0 in this position if a_{i} is not related to b_{j}.
Example. Suppose that A = {1, 2, 3} and B = {1, 2}. Let R be the relation from A to B containing (a, b) if and a > b. What is the matrix representing R if and ?
Solution: Since , the matrix for R is .
Example. Let and . Which ordered pairs are in the relation R represented by the matrix ?
Solution: Since R consists of those ordered pairs with , it follows that R = {(a_{1}, b_{2}), (a_{2}, b_{1}),(a_{2}, b_{3}), (a_{2}, b_{4}), (a_{3}, b_{1}), (a_{3}, b_{3}), (a_{3}, b_{5})}.
Representing relations using digraphs
A directed graph, or digraph, consists of a set V of vertices (or nodes) together with a set E of ordered pairs of elements of V called edges (or arcs). The vertex a is called the initial vertex of the edge (a, b), and the vertex b is called the terminal vertex of this edge.
An edge of the form (a, a) is represented using an arc from the vertex a back to itself. Such an edge is called a loop.
Example. The directed graph with vertices a, b, c and d, and edges (a, b), (a, d), (b, b), (b, d), (c, a), (c, b) and (d, b) is displayed in Figure:
Example. The directed graph of the relation R = {(1, 1),(1, 3), (2, 1),(2, 3),(2, 4), (3, 1), (3, 2),(4, 1)} on the set {1, 2, 3, 4} is shown in Figure:
Example. What are the ordered pairs in the relation R represented by the directed graph shown in Figure below?
Solution: The ordered pair (x, y) in the relation are R = {(1, 3),(1, 4), (2, 1),(2, 2),(2, 3), (3, 1), (3, 3), (4, 1), (4, 3)}. Each of these pairs corresponds to an edge of the directed graph, with (2, 2) and (3, 3), corresponding to loops.
Glossary
composite –êîìïîçèöèÿ;power –ñòåïåíü;directed graph –îðèåíòèðîâàííûé ãðàô
vertex –âåðøèíà;edge –ðåáðî;loop –öèêë
Date: 20150102; view: 874
