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1. legal adj (allowed by law)

2. legal system n (the laws and the way that they work in a particular country)

3. offender n (a person who has committed a crime)

4. criminal lawn (the body of law defining offences against the community at large)

5. casen (an action, cause, suit, or controversy, at law or in equity)

criminal case (court case concerned with law-breakers)

civil case (court case concerning a disagreement between parties)

Try a case v

6. guiltn(the fact or state of having committed a wrong, esp. a crime.) (Cf. innocence) establish guilt

7. constitutional law (the body of law deriving from the U.S. Constitution and dealing primarily with governmental powers, civil rights, and civil liberties)

8. enjoy one’s propertyv(posses or use ) enjoyment of one’s propertyn

9. rulen (an official or accepted principle or order which guides behaviour)

rule v (especially in law)to give an official decision on)

10. agreement n (a mutual understanding between two or more persons about their relative rights and duties regarding past or future performances)

Reading notes:

compulsion the act of compelling: the state of being compelled

a frameworka set of ideas, rules, or beliefs from which something is developed, or on which decisions are based.

Exercise 1. Read the following sentences, notice carefully the active words in bold, and translate the sentences into Russian.


1. People on low salaries can get free legal advice.

2. This trade in foreign currency is perfectly legal.

3. In England divorce finally became legal in 1992.

Legal system

1. Scotland has its own law and legal systemwhich are quite separate from the law and legal system which operate in England and Wales.

2. One of the best known definitions of a legal systemcomes from Professor Hart.

3. Law can affect many aspects of our lives, yet most people living in England and Wales have little understanding of thelegal system that operates in these countries.


1. The courts should impose tougher punishments on offenders.

2. An offender is someone who has broken the law and is being punished for doing it.

3. For many their main awareness of the legal system comes from newspaper articles with headlines such as ‘Murderer jailed for life’; ‘Young offender goes free’; ‘Burglar caught’.


1. The federal courts of the United States have the power to hear and try cases involving disputes between a state and citizens of another state.

2. Serious criminal casesare tried by jury.

3. This type of headline appears so frequently that it is not surprising that, when law is mentioned, many people only think of the criminal law and the courts that deal with this type of case.

Constitutional law

1. The law is divided into: 1. constitutional law, statutory law, case law, administrative law, and common law.

2. Constitutional law is the body of law deriving from the U.S. Constitution and dealing primarily with governmental powers, civil rights, and civil liberties.

3. The Government itself is defined by constitutional law.


1. He made an attempt to deny his guilt.

2.The first purpose of the legal procedure is to find out whether the defendant admits his guilt or not.

3. To do this, the government provides the legal machine with the weapons of compulsion: police to enforce the law and catch those who break it, courts to establish guilt and innocence, and prisons to punish offenders.


1. You must obey/observe the rules.

2. The court has ruled in favour of the sacked employee.

3. The word ‘law’ suggests the idea of rules; rules affecting the lives and activities of people. In any community or group, rules made by people will develop to control the relationships between members.

Enjoy (one’s property, health)

1. He has always enjoyed (= had) good health.

2. These workers enjoy a high level of job security (have a particular ability or advantage).

3. The law recognizes that people have the right to enjoy the use of their own property, but this right is balanced by the right of other land users to enjoy the use of their properties.


1. The two sides were unable to reach an agreement.

2. We are in agreement with their decision.

3. The rules come into existence in varying ways, although in most cases there must have been an agreement between at least some of the members of the community that the rule was desirable.

Date: 2016-01-14; view: 699

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Exercise 5. Cirle the stressed syllable in each of the underlined words. | Exercise 2. Choose the correct preposition from the list below to complete the sentences.
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