Complete the text below using the words and phrases below. Use each word or phrase once only.
The international fast-food chain McDonald’s has been attacked for everything from the quality of its food and treatment of (1) ………………… to its impact on (2) …………………… and the environment. Now the company has published a 46-page social responsibility report which addresses many of these (3)…………………. ,
summarizing its activities and goals under four headings:
community, environment, people, and the wider marketplace. The last heading includes (4) …………………. at McDonald’s suppliers.
In the past few years, the company has been working closely with pressure groups and independent scientist to try to minimise (5)……………………… . In this latest report, the company poinys out that it has a long-standing (6)………………….
not to buy beef from rainforest lands. It also says it is
investigating buying paper from sustainable forests is testing new (7) ……………… other than paper or plastic.
The company has also been working on improving (8) ………………… . In response to (9) ………………………… and pressure from animal rights activists, McDonald’s has set new US standards, for example on the way chickens are housed, that other leading (10) ………………………… are following.
1.Work with partner. What do you think a company might include in its code of ethics? Then read the first paragraph of the article below and compare the writer’s answers with your suggestions
Read the full article and the questions on page. For each question 1-6, mark one letter (A, B, C or D) for answer you choose.
1 Bored with lining your boss’s pockets? Want to work for a company you feel is doing some good in the world? Join the club. Research shows that nowadays employers’ ethics are often the deciding factor when someone opts for a particular post. Increasingly, companies in Britain are responding to this situation by drawing up codes of ethics so that current and prospective staff can see how seriously they take their moral responsibilities. A typical code will address corporate policy towards its various stakeholders: employees, shareholders, customers, suppliers and the wider public. Standards relating to suppliers frequently include a commitment to ensuring that there is no child labour at any stage of the supply chain, and that wages and working hours are reasonable.
2 As part of their code, some companies, including chain store Marks & Spencer, have joined the Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI), ‘a membership body that exists to set standards for labour within supply chains,’ explains David Steele, its Information Officer. Other employers send inspectors on regular visits to check the ethical standards and practices of all their suppliers of goods and services – whether in east London or the Far East.
3 ‘Recently there have been a lot of documentaries highlighting conditions in factories overseas, as well as on issues like child labour in this country. As a result, workers are now taking a broader interest in the companies for which they work,’ claims David Steele. “The fact that the Internet has created a global economy is also significant. We no longer think of a sweatshop in Korea as being so far away.’
4 Nevertheless, research also shows that some employers write a code of ethics simply to enhance their image. Upon closer inspection, there may be little real commitment. ‘That’s why candidates who care about ethical issues should ask at the interview stage not only whether there is a code, but whether they can see it,’ advises Rachel Ormond, an academic researcher in ethics and employment. ‘It should exist in document form, and in many cases it is now included on the company website.’
5 ‘You might also want to ask your prospective employer encourages staff to get involved in giving something back to society,’ she adds. Employees sometimes do voluntary work, for example, either wholly or partly in company time, and usually on projects initiated by the company. The financial services provider Zurich sends staff on one-month secondments to help with projects in India. Marks & Spencer sets up 100-hour part-time secondments for staff who want to get involved with local community projects.
6 However, it is not only in order to present themselves as caring employers that companies are becoming increasingly concerned about ethical issues. Professor Malcolm McIntosh of Warwick University Corporate Citizenship Unit explains that in our rapidly changing world, organizations need to have values. Now, he says, businesses to take responsibility for such matters as human rights, environmental impact and social responsibility. ‘Business does not operate in a vacuum. The rules of the game are such that we have to be aware of all stakeholders, customers, staff and the communities in which companies operate. You can’t make money unless you understand people’s values.’
1 In paragraph 1, why does the writer say some companies are introducing codes of ethics?
A to help attract new employees
B to encourage their staff to behave ethically
C to prove to suppliers that they treat their staff well
D to help improve their employees’ working conditions
2 The Ethical Trading Initiative’s objective is to
A advise companies about ethical issues and check on ethical standards.
B ensure acceptable pay and working conditions for everyone involved in producing goods.
C improve the quality of goods sold by its members.
D make sure suppliers behave ethically.
3 David Steel believes people are more aware of ethical issues nowadays
A because of the efforts of the organization he works for.
B because of media coverage of these issues.
C because some well-known companies have drawn up codes of ethics.
D because they buy goods from foreign suppliers over the Internet.
4 Job candidates should ask to see a company’s code of ethics because
A some companies haven’t yet written one.
B the company may be pretending to have one.
C it may not be posted on the company’s website.
D the company may not really care about ethical issues.
5 Some companies now encourage their employees
A to do charity work in their spare time.
B to go abroad in order to get job experience.
C to help people during their working hours.
D to work for on month in the local community.
6 According to Professor McIntosh, paying attention to ethical issues will