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Form nouns from the verbs.

ENGINE

Knowledge of a few general principles of engine operation will help the pilot obtain increased dependabilityand efficiency from the engine and, in many instances, this knowledge will help inavoiding engine failure. As different types of aircraft are equipped with different types of engines, it is impractical to discuss in detail the various types of engines here. Information from the manufacturer's instruction manual;familiarity with the operating limitations for the airplane engine; and specific advice from a flight instruc­tor should provide adequate information to op­erate an airplane engine satisfactorily.

Aircraft engine is an engine that is used or intended to be used for propelling aircraft. The aircraft engine includes all accessories necessary for its functioning, but does not include propellers.

Propeller is a device for propelling an aircraft that has blades on an engine-driven shaft and that, when rotated, produces by itsac­tion on the air, a thrust approximately perpendicular to its plane of rotation.

Most light airplane engines installed on aircraft designed for ab-initio training are in­ternal combustion of the reciprocating type. They are called reciprocating engines because certain parts move back and forth in contrast to a circular motion such as a turbine. The re­ciprocating engine consists of cylinders, pis­tons, connecting rods, and a crankshaft. One end of a connecting rod is attached to a piston and the other end to the crankshaft. This con­verts the straight-line motion of the piston to the rotary motion of the crankshaft, which turns the propeller. At the closed end of the cylinder there are normally two spark plugs which ignite the fuel, and two openings over which valves open and close. One valve (the in­take valve) when open admits the mixture of fuel and air, and the other (the exhaust valve) when open permits the burned gases to escape. For the engine to complete one cycle, die pis­ton must complete four strokes. This requires two revolutions of the crankshaft. The four strokes are the intake, compression, power, and exhaust. The following describes one cycle of engine operation.

As the piston moves away from the cylinder head, the intake valve is opened and the fuel/air mixture is drawn into the cylin­der. This is the intake stroke.

As the piston returns to the top of the cylinder, both valves are closed, and the fuel/air mixture is compressed. This is the com­pression stroke.

When the piston is approximately at the top of the cylinder head, a spark from the plugs ignites the mixture, which burns at a controlled rate.Expansion of the burning gas exerts pressure on the piston, forcing it downward. This is the power stroke.

Before the piston completes the power stroke the exhaust valve starts to open, and the burned gases are forced out as the piston returns to the top of the cylinder. This is the exhaust stroke.

A spark to ignite the fuel/air mixture in the cylinder is provided by the ignition system



The burning fuel within the cylinders produces intense heat, most of which is expel (through the exhaust. Much of the remaining heat, however, must be removed by the cooling systemto prevent the engine from overheating.

Most light airplane engines are air cooled. The cooling process is accomplished by cool air being forced into die engine compartment through openings in front of the engine cowl.

The oil systemis used as for storing at circulating oil throughout the internal components of the engine. The oil temperature gauge indicates the temperature of the oil which heated by the engine.

The fuel systemis intended to continuously supply fuel to the engines, meeting the engine demands under all operating conditions and maintaining the center of gravity position within the tolerable limits.

 

Ex.2. Comprehension check.

1. What is an engine?

2. What is a propeller?

3. What does a reciprocating engine mean?

4. What does the reciprocating engine consist of?

5. How many strokes does the piston make to complete one cycle?

6. What system provides a spark to ignite the fuel/air mixture in the cylinder?

7. Why is it necessary to cool the engine?

8. What is the oil system used for?

9. What system supplies fuel to the engines?

10. Why is it important to maintain the center of gravity position within the tolerable limits?

Ex.3. Fill in the chart to find the other parts of speech. Use your dictionary necessary. Check the pronunciation.

NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE •\- ■■
  strengthen strong  
  provide . • •  
ignition      
.................... ... —.....................— ■ ~......-.....'......................~.....■........~..... structural ...... 1
  propel    
  ..... efficient  
  compress ........................■ ~~...........................................................................~ -............-.........~  
caution   , , .  
... • • • specific  
  operate    

Form nouns from the verbs.

To provide, to retract, to curve, to supply, to caution, to attach, to absorb, to satisfy, to load, to î circulate,to compress, to aviate, to consider, to cause, to intend, to use, to combine, to limit, to to propel, to complete.

 

 

Ex.1 Complete (his description of the life of a musician, using the verbs given. Use either the past simple or the past continuous.

Colin Boyle was born in 1973 near Dublin, Ireland, in 1983 he became seriously ill. While he 1)...............

(recover) his uncle 2)............... (give) him an old violin. He enjoyed playing and practised at his school every day

after lessons. One day in 1987, John Leaf, the manager of several successful musicians, 3)..............(have) a meeting

with the headmaster when he 4).......... (hear) Colin practicing. He immediately 5)................ (contact) Colin

teacher and 6)................(invite) Colin to appear in one of the concerts he 7)............ (organise) that year. Con;.

however 8)............(refuse) Leafs invitation, because just then he 9)............. (prepare) for some important school

exams. Colin 10) ..........(pass) his exams and 11).......... (go) to college to study engineering. At college he 12)

................(meet) Kim O'Malley, who 13).......(study) chemistry. Kim was also a keen amateur musician. Being

students, they rarely 14).............(have) much money and they usually 15)..............(work) as waiters at weekends. One

evening in April 1992, while Colin and Kim 16).............(serve) customers, the manager 17).........(announce) that

there would be no live music in the restaurant that night as the regular hand could not come. Colin and Kim 18)......

.........(persuade) him to let them play to the customers. Everyone 19)......(be) amazed to hear how good they 20)

............(be). Six months later they 21)..........(decide) to leave college because they 22)..........(earn) so much money

as musicians. Their success has continued ever since.

Ex.2 Complete the following paragraphs with suitable verbs, Use either the past simple or past continuous tense.

A) John Blake was born in London in 1969. He 1).............to work in France when he was nineteen. While he

2) ............. in a restaurant in Paris, he 3).......Luisa, an Italian student. He 4)............ her to marry him, but she

wouldn't. Heartbroken, he 5).......... to England. Three years later, John 6)..........along a street in London when he

7) .............Luisa. She 8).............London with a friend called Maria. When John and Maria 9).............they fell

in love at first sight, and got married the following year.

B) 1 had a terrible time last Saturday. It was rather, cold, but quite sunny, so after lunch I 10).............into town

111).............to buy a pullover. I 12).............in the window of a clothes shop when someone 13).............my

wallet. While 114)..........home, it 15)...................to rain and I arrived home cold and miserable. I 16).......to have

a hot bath. 117)...................ready to have my bath when the doorbell 18)............It was a salesman and, it took me

several minutes to get rid of him. Unfortunately, all the time he 19)...................to me the water 20)..............You

can imagine the state of the bathroom!

Ex. 24. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct passive tense.

1. I'm going to a party tonight. I......................(invite) by my friend.

2 Tom didn't go to the meeting yesterday. It.......................(cancel).

3 After.......................(rescue) from the river, the boys went to hospital.

4 They......................(take) to hospital by ambulance.

5 I have a beautiful j umper which....................(knit) by my grandmother.

6 The new bridge........................(build) already.

7 The tables.......................(set) before the restaurant opens tonight.

8 Breakfast........................(serve) every day from 7 am to 10 am.

9 This secret must not.......................(reveal) to anyone.

10 He.......................(consider) to be a very talented musician.

11 Tickets.......................(sell) until the day of the concert.

12 The instructions must..................(follow) very carefully.

Ex. 26. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct active or passive tense.

1 This tree is very old. It.................(plant) in the 19th century.

2 This piece of music.......................(not/record) yet. I've just composed it.

3 The thieves...................(steal) the jewellery from the safe yesterday.

4 We began work early, but we...................(not/finish) until late.

5 Jenny..........................(complain) to the manager about the faulty items at the moment.

6 This photograph.......................................(take) by my grandfather when I was five.

7 Don't touch the saucepan. You might..................(burn) yourself.

8 We...................(delay) because there was a lot of traffic this morning.

9 Not much........................(know) about this complicated subj ect.

10 I'm going home now because all the work................(do).

11 The new nightclub.................(close) by the council last week.

12 Jessica....................................(run) two kilometres every day before work.

13 Jim's house is very modern. It.............(build) only two years ago.

14 Don't stay up late tonight, or else you............(be) tired tomorrow.

Texts: p. 17-20.


Date: 2016-01-14; view: 960


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