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The Loggerhead Sea Turtle.

Did you know that in the last 500 years, 844 species – like the passenger pigeon, the dodo, and the golden toad – are known to have died out? Or that by the year 2100 some scientists believe that the half of the world’s species may be extinct? That could be one species every 20 minutes, or 27,000 a year!

At the moment, experts say that up to 16,000 species are under threat. In most cases, human activity is the greatest danger to these species. One of these species is the loggerhead sea turtle, which is finding that the beaches it uses to lay its eggs are becoming increasingly popular with tourists. When the eggs begin to hatch in August, there are already thousands of humans enjoying the sun on the beaches. An area that was used by turtles for thousands of years is now a territory of sunbathers, swimmers and ice-cream vendors.

Some people, however, are trying to make a difference. Since 1982, the Sea Turtle Protection Society in Greece has done its best to protect these rare species. With help from the World Wildlife fund, it has bought a beach popular with the turtles and makes sure that the tourists stay away. Every year over 500 volunteers from all over the world come to help with the society’s work for the turtles. Thanks to their help, more and more young turtles are finding their way to the sea.


1. Name the species that have already died out.

2. How many species are under threat at the moment, according to scientists?

3. What is the main danger to the species?

4. Why are the loggerhead sea turtles under threat of extinction?

5. How can people protect the loggerhead sea turtle?


Variant 4

Use less stuff

You can help protect the environment by learning about and practising the 3 Rs: Reduce, Recycle and Reuse.

It’s not waste until you waste it! Think carefully about how you can reuse something before you throw it away . Also, if things break, try to repair them before you replace them. If you buy a replacement for something you already have, give the old items to someone who needs them.

Always switch off the lights when you leave an empty room, and use light bulbs that save energy. You can also switch off the cooker a few minutes earlier – there will still be enough heat to finish cooking the food. Why not take showers in cooler water and for shorter lengths of time? Finally, turn down the heating and put on warmer clothes if you’re cold.

Buy things with simple packaging that can easily be recycled. Better still, choose products with no packaging at all. If you are preparing a packed lunch to eat at school, take a sandwich in a reusable lunchbox, juice in a reusable bottle and a banana, rather than a sandwich in a plastic bag, or a carton of juice.

Try to cut down on the amount of paper you use. Use a computer and proofread your writing on the screen before you print it out. Use both sides of the paper and then recycle it. Remember that telephone calls and e-mail messages don’t create paper waste.


1. What is the rule of 3 Rs?

2. What can we do to reduce waste?

3. What can we do to save energy and electricity?

4. Give ideas about how we can reduce excessive packaging.

5. How can we cut down on the amount of paper we use?


Variant 5

Marine Litter

We all enjoy a day out on the beach, but these days you are likely to find much more there than just sand and sea. Many of the thousands of people that visit beaches every year leave behind food wrappers, cigarettes ends, drink cans and toys like buckets, spades and beach balls. These can be blown or washed into the sea and become marine litter. Marine litter can also come from ships, fishermen, drains and factories. This litter doesn’t just look horrible – it’s dangerous, too!

Marine mammals such as seals, sea lions and dolphins are very curious animals who like to examine unusual objects in the sea. This is how they get mixed up in the litter. Birds, fish and mammals can also confuse litter for food and eat it. Sea turtles often eat plastic bags because they look like jellyfish, one of their favorite foods. This then fills up the turtle’s digestive system, and makes it feel full, so it stops eating and starves. 100,000marine mammals and over a 1,000,000 seabirds die either from getting caught in or eating litter each year. Many of these creatures are already threatened or endangered species. In addition, litter is dangerous for people as they can cut themselves on glass or metal.

So next time you go to the beach, make sure you are a part of the solution, not the problem. Take all of your litter home with you and consider taking any other litter you can see around you too. If you live near a beach, you could even organize a Beach Clean-up Day.


1. What is marine litter? Name several types of marine litter form the text.

2. Name 3 kinds of mammals from the text.

3. In which ways does marine litter harm the wildlife?

4. How can litter harm people?

5. How can we help to solve this problem? Give ideas.


Variant 6

Rainbow of food

Red foods get you moving. They give you that extra boost when you really need it the most. What’s more, eating foods in this group will protect you from many serious illnesses and can keep older people active for longer.

Orange foods are brain food. They help you keep your mind on things that really improve your powers of concentration. On the physical side, foods like mangos, oranges and peaches have lots of vitamin C. This is important, because that’s the vitamin that helps your body fight off infections. As everyone knows, carrots are also fantastic for your eyesight.

Yellow foods are nature’s way of helping us to stay happy. They make you more optimistic. Imagine that you are feeling a bit down in the dumps. Eat a banana and you’ll feel a bit better. Eat a couple of slices of pineapple and you’ll feel a smile coming on. Enjoying yellow food is better for you, emotionally, than hearing the best jokes in the world.

Broccoli, lettuce and cucumbers are green foods. These foods are great when you want to relax, calm yourself down, or keep your emotions under control. Green foods are green for you because they contain vitamins and minerals that keep your teeth and bones strong and healthy.

Shakespeare, Da Vinci and Picasso must have all been fans of purple foods. This is because fruits and vegetables like figs, prunes and beetroot make people more creative.


1. What effect do red foods have on us?

2. Name some of the orange foods. How do orange foods help us?

3. Name some of the yellow foods. What is so special about yellow food?

4. Name some of the green foods. When is it important to eat food of green color?

5. What is your favorite color of food? Why?


Variant 7

Date: 2016-01-14; view: 1687

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