Simile (metaphor): like a yellow butterfly;
like a little restless midge;
like a yellow silken scarf;
like a rod of rippled jade
here and there
Analyze the poem and the text using the scheme of lexicological analysis of the text supplemented:
Yet each man kills the thing he loves,
By each let this be heard,
Some do it with a bitter look,
Some with the flattering word,
The coward does it with a kiss,
The brave man with a sword.
Some kill their love they are young.
And some when they are old:
Some strangle with the hands of Lust,
Some with the hands of Gold:
The kindest use a knife, because
The dead so soon grow cold.
Some love too little, some too long,
Some sell, and other buy;
Some do the deed with many tears,
And some without sigh:
For each man kills the thing he loves,
Yet each man does not die.
Rules for a Happy Marriage
When a husband is reading aloud, a wife should sit quietly in her chair, relaxed but attentive. She should not keep swinging one foot, start to wind her wrist-watch, file her finger nails or clap her hands in an effort to catch a mosquito. The good wife allows the mosquito to bite her when her husband reading aloud.
She should not break in to correct her husband's pronunciation, or to tell him one of his socks is wrong side out. When her husband has finished, the wife should not plunge instantly into some irrelevant subject. It's wiser to exclaim: “How interesting!” or, at very last, “Well, well!” She might even compliment him on his diction and his grasp of politics, elm flight or boxing. If he should ask some shrewd question to test her attention, she can cry, “Good heavens!” leap up, and rush to the kitchen on some urgent fictitious errand. This may fool him, or it may not. I hope for her sake − and his − that it does.
THE SCHEME OF LEXICOLOGICAL ANALYSIS
OF THE TEXT
I. Vocabulary as a system (12 points).
Find all possible groupings of the vocabulary presented in the text: morphological (root, derived, compound, derivational compound), lexico-grammatical (nouns: personal names, animal names, collective names for people, collective names for animals, abstract nouns, material nouns, object nouns, proper names for people, toponymic proper nouns, etc.; verbs: denoting movement, process, state, mental activity, sense perception, having modal shade of meaning, etc.), thematic and ideographic groups, synonyms (ideographic, stylistic, absolute), antonyms (root or derived, contradictories, contraries, incompatibles), homonyms (full or complete, lexical, lexico-grammatical or grammatical, homophones, homographs or perfect homonyms). Give stylistic classification of the words in the text (neutral, bookish, colloquial).
II. Etymology of the words (10 points).
Identify native and foreign words (of Greek, Latin, French, Italian, Spanish, Russian etc. origin). Determine the type of assimilation (phonetic, grammatical, lexical); the degree of assimilation (complete, partial, lack of assimilation).
III. Word-formation (10 points).
Find derived and compound words in the text. Determine the type of word-derivation. State morphemic structure of any derived word, types of morphemes (root, suffix, prefix; free, bound). Determine the types of compound words (compounds proper, derivational compounds).
IV. Word-meaning (8 points).
Pick out from the text a free word-group, classify it (endocentric, exocentric; subordinate, coordinative; verbal, nominal, adjectival, adverbial; predicative, non-predicative; according to its structure), define the context for the head-word (grammatical, lexical, extra-linguistic) which helps realize one of its meanings. State whether the word realizes its main or derived meaning. Define the components of lexical meaning (denotational, connotational).
V. Phraseological Units (10 points).
Find a Phraseological Unit in the text. Define its characteristic features (idiomaticity, lexical, grammatical and functional stability) and comment on the difference of a Phraseological Unit as compared to a free word-group. Making use of V.V. Vinogradov’s (fusions, unities, collocation) and Koonin’s classifications (nominative, nominative-communicative, neither nominative nor communicative; communicative) define the type of a Phraseological Unit.