65. Which of the following types of information is considered most sensitive and, therefore, should appear at the end of the questionnaire?
a. Basic information
b. Classification information (easy, page 303)
c. Problem-solving information
d. Random information
e. Quantification information
66. A strategy for ordering questions in a questionnaire in which the sequence starts with general questions, which are followed by progressively more specific questions, in order to prevent specific questions from biasing general questions, is called the ______________.
a. unstructured approach
b. funnel approach (moderate, page 304)
c. diagnostic approach
d. goal-oriented approach
e. inverted-funnel approach
67. According to the text, ______________ direct respondents to different places in the questionnaire based on their response to the question at hand.
a. branching questions (moderate, page 304)
b. leading questions
c. double-barreled questions
d. filter questions
e. break-out questions
68. A ______________ is a question used to guide an interviewer through a survey by directing the interviewer to different spots on the questionnaire depending on the answers given.
a. branching question (moderate, page 304)
b. leading question
c. double-barreled question
d. filter question
e. break-out questions
69. In questionnaire design, assigning a code to every conceivable response before data collection is called ______________.
c. precoding (moderate, page 305)
70. According to the text, identification information is usually positioned in which place in the questionnaire?
a. at the beginning
b. right after the screening questions
C. in the middle
d. before the lifestyle questions
e. at the end (difficult, page 305)
71. Results of crowding questions include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. respondents give shorter answers to open-ended questions
b. increase in data tabulation errors
C. questions appear more complex
d. none of the above
e. a, b, and c (moderate, page 306)
72. ______________ is the testing of the questionnaire on a small sample of respondents for the purpose of improving the questionnaire by identifying and eliminating potential problems before using it in the actual survey.
b. Pretesting (moderate, page 307)
73. According to the text, pretests are best done by ______________ interviews.
d. personal (moderate, page 307)
74. Regarding international marketing research, which of the following statements is (are) true?
a. Only one pretest is recommended in cross-national studies.
b. Demographics questions can be used without modification in cross-national studies.
C. Structured questions minimize the risk of cultural bias.
d. Personal interviewing is the dominant survey method.
e. c and d (difficult, page 305)
75. According to the text, at what point are telephone interviews considered to be too long?
a. Over 10 minutes
b. Over 15 minutes
C. Over 20 minutes
d. Over 25 minutes
e. Over 30 minutes (difficult, page 313)
76. In a short essay, describe a questionnaire and discuss the three specific objectives of a questionnaire.
A questionnaireis a formalized set of questions for obtaining information from respondents. It has three specific objectives. First, the overriding objective is to translate the researcher's information needs into a set of specific questions that respondents are willing and able to answer. Second, a questionnaire should be written to minimize demands imposed on respondents. It should encourage them to participate in the entire interview, without biasing their responses. Third, a questionnaire should minimize response error. These errors can arise from respondents who give inaccurate answers or from misrecording or misanalyzing their answers. Minimizing the error introduced by the questionnaire itself is an important objective of questionnaire design.
(moderate, page 288)
77. In a short essay, list the ten steps to designing the ideal questionnaire.
The guidelines to support questionnaire design include the following 10 steps: (1) specify the information needed, (2) specify the type of interviewing method, (3) determine the content of individual questions, (4) design the questions to overcome the respondent's inability and unwillingness to answer, (5) decide on the question structure, (6) determine the question wording, (7) arrange the questions in proper order, (8) choose the form and layout, (9) reproduce the questionnaire, and (10) pretest the questionnaire.
(moderate, page 290)
78. In a short essay, define unstructured questions and discuss at least two advantages and two disadvantages to using these types of questions.
Unstructured questions are open-ended questions that respondents answer in their own words. They are also referred to as free-response or free-answer questions. The advantages of open-ended questions include enabling the respondents to express general attitudes and opinions that can help the researcher interpret their responses to structured questions. Open-ended questions allow the respondent to express their attitudes or opinions without the bias associated with restricting responses to predefined alternatives. Thus they can be useful in identifying underlying motivations, beliefs, and attitudes. Unstructured questions are useful in exploratory research. The disadvantages of unstructured questions relate to recording error, data coding, and the added complexity of analysis. In personal or telephone interviews, successfully recording verbatim comments depends entirely on the recording skills of the interviewer. Categorizing the recording comments to open-ended questions introduces the second source of bias and another major disadvantage. Unstructured questions are also of limited value in self-administered questionnaires because respondents tend to be briefer in writing than in speaking.
(moderate, page 296)
79. In a short essay, list and discuss at least four guidelines that should be followed in order to avoid problems in question wording.
a. Define the issue – questions should always clearly define the issue being addressed. An issue should be defined in terms of who, what, when, where, why, and way. These—particularly who, what, when, and where—can also serve as guidelines for defining the issue in a question.
b. Use simple words –simple, ordinary words that match the vocabulary level of the respondent should be used in a questionnaire. When choosing words, keep in mind that the average person in the U.S. has a high school, not a college, education.
c. Use unambiguous words –when selecting words for a questionnaire, the questionnaire designer should choose words with only one meaning. This is not an easy task given that a number of words that appear unambiguous can have different meanings to different people.
d. Avoid producing leading or biasing questions –a leading question is one that clues the respondent to what the answer should be. Words can lead respondents in a particular direction. Identification of the research sponsor can have the same effect.
e. Balance dual statements –evidence shows that the responses obtained from questions often depend on the direction of the wording of the question—whether the wording is stated positively or negatively. Questions of this type should be balanced by using dual statements, some of which are positive and some negative.
(moderate, pages 299-302)
80. In a short essay, list and discuss the three types of information that are obtained from a questionnaire.
The three types of information obtained from a questionnaire include basic information, classification information, and identification information. Basic informationrelates directly to the research problem. Classification information consists of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. It is used to classify the respondents in order to analyze results across different groups. Identification informationincludes name, address, and telephone number. Identification information may be obtained for a variety of purposes, including verifying that the respondents listed were actually interviewed and remitting promised incentives.
(easy, page 303)
81. In a short essay, discuss ethical issues of questionnaire design related to a) the researcher/respondent relationship, and b) the researcher/client relationship.
a. researcher/respondent relationship - In consideration of the respondents, questions that are confusing, exceed the respondents' ability, are difficult, or are otherwise improperly worded should be avoided. When asking sensitive questions, researchers should attempt to minimize the respondents' discomfort. It should be made clear at the beginning of the questionnaire that respondents are not obligated to answer any question that makes them uncomfortable. Similarly, overly long questionnaires should be avoided. As a general guideline, the following are considered overly long: a personal, in-home interview lasting over 60 minutes, a telephone interview over 30 minutes, a mall-intercept interview over 30 minutes, a mail or electronic interview over 30 minutes. Overly long questionnaires are burdensome on the respondents and adversely affect the quality of responses.
b. the researcher/client relationship - Finally, the researcher has the ethical responsibility to design a questionnaire that obtains the required data in an unbiased manner. Deliberately biasing the questionnaire in a desired direction—for example, by asking leading questions—cannot be condoned. In deciding the question structure, the most appropriate rather than the most convenient option should be adopted, as illustrated by the next example. If the questionnaire is not thoroughly pretested, an ethical breach has occurred.