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False (moderate, page 46

 

21. A marketing research problem asks what information is needed and how it should be obtained.

True (moderate, page 46)

 

22. Determining the impact on sales and profits of various levels of price changes is an issue that would be addressed in a management decision problem.

False (difficult, page 45)

 

23. Unbiased evidence that is supported by empirical findings is called objective evidence.

True (moderate, page 49)

 

24. A theory is a conceptual scheme based on foundational statements, which are assumed to be true.

True (moderate, page 49)

 

25. An explicit specification of a set of variables and their interrelationships designed to represent some real system or process in whole or in part is called an analytical model.

True (moderate, page 49)

 

26. In graphical models, the variables and their relationships are stated in prose form.

False (moderate, page 50)

 

27. Verbal models are often a summary or restatement of the main points of the theory.

True (moderate, page 50)

 

28. Mathematical models are visual and pictorially represent the theory.

False (moderate, page 50)

 

29. Graphical models are used to isolate variables and to suggest directions of relationships but are not designed to provide numerical results.

True (moderate, page 50)

 

30. According to the text, graphical models are logical, preliminary steps to developing mathematical models.

True (moderate, page 50)

 

31. Verbal models explicitly specify the strength and direction of relationships among variables, usually in equation form.

False (moderate, page 50)

 

32. Research questions are refined statements of the specific components of the problem.

True (moderate, page 50)

 

33. An unproven statement or proposition about a factor or phenomenon that is of interest to the researcher is called a theory.

False (moderate, page 51)

 

34. Hypotheses are statements about proposed relationships rather than merely questions to be answered.

True (moderate, page 51)

 

35. An unproven statement or proposition about a factor or phenomenon that is of interest to the researcher is called a hypothesis.

True (moderate, page 51)

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

36. While every step in a marketing research project is important, ______________ is the most important step.

f. problem definition (moderate, page 33)

g. problem correction

h. research design formulation

i. report generation and presentation

j. project completion

 

37. A broad statement of the general problem and identification of the specific components of the marketing research problem is called ______________.

a. problem correction

b. problem definition (moderate, page 33)

c. hypotheses generation

d. problem audit

e. project conceptualization

 

38. Michael Dell of Dell Computers wants his company to take market share from Hewlett-Packard and Apple in the category of printers. As his marketing research director, which of the following would NOT be part of the tasks involved in formulating the marketing research problem to support Dell's strategic initiative in selling printers?



a. qualitative research

b. interviews with experts

c. secondary data analysis

d. discussions with Michael Dell

e. composing the research design (moderate, page 35)

 

39. ______________ is a comprehensive examination of a marketing problem to understand its origin and nature.

a. Problem definition

b. Problem correction

c. Hypotheses generation

d. Research directive

e. Problem audit (moderate, page 36)

 

40. The problem audit involves discussions with the decision maker on all of the following issues EXCEPT:

a. the history of the problem.

b. the criteria that will be used to evaluate the alternative courses of action.

c. the information that is needed to answer the decision maker's questions.

d. The alternative courses of action available to the decision maker

e. the national culture as it's related to a country's trade barriers. (difficult, pages 36-37)

 

41. ______________ are data collected for some purpose other than the problem at hand.

a. Primary data

b. Secondary data (easy, page 39)

c. Virtual data

d. Observational data

e. Research data

 

42. According to the text, ______________ are an economical and quick source of background information.

a. primary data

b. virtual data

c. secondary data (easy, page 39)

d. observational data

e. a and b

 

43. All of the following represent examples of sources of secondary data EXCEPT:

a. trade organizations.

b. the Bureau of Census.

c. the Internet.

d. a and b

e. survey data. (moderate, page 39-40)

 

44. Which sources of secondary data would be helpful in defining the problem of Wendy's increasing its share of the fast food market.

a. a field research project conducted by Wendy's to answer the question of how to increase its share of the fast food market

b. a report from the Fast Food Retailers Association on changing preferences for consumer tastes

c. a US Census Bureau report on the changing demographic profile of the US consumer

d. all of the above

e. b and c only (moderate, page 39)

45. Data originated by the researcher specifically to address the research problem are called ______________.

a. primary data (easy, page 40)

b. secondary data

c. virtual data

d. Census data

e. Research data

 

46. An unstructured, exploratory research methodology based on small samples intended to provide insight and understanding of the problem setting is called ______________.

a. quantitative research

b. qualitative research (moderate, page 40)

c. descriptive research

d. causal research

e. secondary data

 

47. ______________ tend to be less structured and to have a smaller samples than large-scale surveys.

a. Mail surveys

b Pilot surveys (easy, page 41)

c. Online surveys

d. Census surveys

e. Telephone surveys

 


 

48. According to the text, examples of cases used in case studies could be all of the following EXCEPT:

a. customers

b stores

c. firms

d. markets

e. surveys (difficult, page 41)

 

49 All of the following represent factors that comprise the environmental context of the problem EXCEPT:

a. resources of the firm.

b. objectives of the decision maker.

c. accounting practices used by the firm twenty years ago. (easy, page 42)

d. economic environment.

e. constraints of the firm.

 

50. ______________ is a body of knowledge that tries to understand and predict consumers' reactions based on an individual's specific characteristics.

a. Economic behavior

b. Organizational behavior

c. Buyer behavior (moderate, page 43)

d. Ethical behavior

e. Census data

 

51. According to the text, ______________ is a central component of the environment.

a. economic behavior

b. organizational behavior

c. ethical behavior

d. stock price of the publicly held company in question

e. buyer behavior (moderate, page 43)

 

52. ______________ includes the underlying motives, perceptions, attitudes, buying habits, and demographic and psychographic profiles of buyers and potential buyers.

a. Buyer behavior (moderate, page 43)

b. Economic behavior

c. Organizational behavior

d. Ethical behavior

e. Advertising creativity

 

53. The researcher must have a clear understanding of two types of objectives. Objectives:

a. that are precise and that are specific.

b for daily and for weekly work.

c. for finance and for marketing.

d. for marketing and for research.

e. of the organization, and of the decision maker. (moderate, page 43)

 

54. Which of the following is NOT considered an element of the legal environment?

a. public policies

b. general economic conditions (difficult, page 44)

c. laws

d. government agencies

e. pressure groups

 

55. All of the following are considered as elements in the economic environment EXCEPT:

a. public policies. (moderate, page 44)

b. purchasing power.

c. discretionary income.

d. general economic conditions.

e. disposable income.

 

56. The problem confronting the decision maker is typically referred to as the ______________.

a. management decision problem (moderate, page 45)

b. theoretical decision problem

c. hypothetical decision problem

d. marketing research problem

e. research context problem

 

57. The ______________ asks what information is needed and how it can best be obtained.

a. management decision problem

b. theoretical decision problem

c. hypothetical decision problem

d. research context problem

e. marketing research problem (moderate, page 45)

 

58. According to the text, the ______________ is information oriented.

a. marketing research problem (moderate, page 45)

b. management decision problem

c. theoretical decision problem

d. hypothetical decision problem

e. research context problem

 

59. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a management decision problem?

a. focuses on symptoms

b. asks what the decision maker needs to do

c. is action oriented

d. focused on the underlying causes (difficult, page 46)

e. a and c

 

60. All of the following are characteristics of a marketing research problem EXCEPT:

a. asks what the decision maker needs to do. (difficult, page 46)

b. asks what information is needed and how it should be obtained.

c. is information oriented.

d. focuses on the underlying causes.

e. a and d

 

61. Which of the following is NOT an issue that would be addressed in a management decision problem?

a. Should the advertising campaign be changed?

b. Should the price of the product be changed?

c. Determine the impact on sales and profits of various levels of price changes. (difficult, pp. 45-46)

d. What can a company do to expand its share of its product category?

e. b and c


 

62. Unbiased evidence that is supported by empirical findings is called ______________.

a. objective evidence (moderate, page 49)

b. analytical evidence

c. theoretical evidence

d. subjective evidence

e. research data

 

63. A(n) ______________ is a conceptual scheme based on foundation statements, which are assumed to be true.

a. experiment

b. theory (moderate, page 49)

c. objective

d. incident

e. investigation

 

64. An explicit specification of a set of variables and their interrelationships designed to represent some real system or process in whole or in part is called a(n) _____________.

a. analytical model (moderate, page 49)

b. theory

c. hypothesis

d. objective

e. broad-based research

 

65. Which of the following is NOT a common form of a model?

a. verbal model

b. graphical model

c. mathematical model

d. technological model (moderate, page 50)

e. a and b

 

66. In _____________, the variables and their relationships are stated in prose form.

a. verbal models (moderate, page 50)

b. graphical models

c. mathematical models

d. technological models

e. provisional models

 

67. Which of the following models are often a summary or restatement of the main points of the theory?

a. graphical models

b. mathematical models

c. verbal models (moderate, page 50)

d. technological models

e. provisional models

 

68. ______________ are visual and pictorially represent the theory.

a. Graphical models (moderate, page 50)

b. Mathematical models

c. Verbal models

d. Technological models

e. cartoons


 

69. Which of the following models are used to isolate variables and to suggest directions of relationships but are not designed to provide numerical results?

a. graphical models (moderate, page 50)

b. mathematical models

c. verbal models

d. technological models

e. specific models

 

70. According to the text, ______________ are logical, preliminary steps to developing mathematical models.

a. theoretical models

b. verbal models

c. technological models

d. graphical models (moderate, page 50)

e. durable models

 

71. ______________ explicitly specify the strength and direction of relationships among variables, usually in equation form.

a. Graphical models

b. Mathematical models (moderate, page 50)

c. Verbal models

d. Technological models

e. Provisional models

 

72. ______________ are refined statements of the specific components of the problem.

a. Research questions (moderate, page 50)

b. Theories

c. Hypotheses

d. Experiments

e. Scientific information

 

73. An unproved statement or proposition about a factor or phenomenon that is of interest to the researcher is called a(n) ______________.

a. theory

b. hypothesis (moderate, page 51)

c. model

d. experiment

e. invoice

 

74. ______________ are statements about proposed relationships rather than merely questions to be answered.

a. Theories

b. Models

c. Experiments

d. Hypotheses (moderate, page 51)

e. scientific notation

 

75. An unproven statement or proposition about a factor or phenomenon that is of interest to the researcher is called a(n) ______________.

a. situation

b. incident

c. hypothesis (moderate, page 51)

d. theory

e. invoice


Essay Questions

 

76. In a short essay, list and discuss at least five important issues that are discussed with decision makers when a problem audit is conducted.

 

Answer

a. The history of the problem this is a discussion of the events that led to the decision to act.

b. The alternate courses of action available to the decision maker the set of alternatives may be incomplete at this stage, and qualitative research may be needed to identify the more innovative courses of action.

c. The criteria that will be used to evaluate the alternative courses of action for example, new product offerings might be evaluated on the basis of sales, market share, profitability, and return on investment.

d. The nature of potential actions that are likely to be suggested based on research findings this research finding will likely call for a strategic marketing response to the competition.

e. The information that is needed to answer the decision maker's questions the information needed includes a comparison of all elements of the marketing mix in order to determine relative strengths and weaknesses.

f. The manner in which the decision maker will use each item of information in making the decision the key decision makers will devise a strategy based on the research findings and their intuition and judgment.

g. The corporate culture as it relates to decision making in some firms, the decision-making process is dominant; in others, the personality of the decision maker is more important.

(moderate, pages 36-38)

 

 

77. In a short essay, discuss the differences between primary and secondary data. Include a specific example of each to support your answer.

 

Answer

Secondary data are data collected for some purpose other than the problem at hand, such as data available from trade organizations, the Bureau of Census, and the Internet. Primary data, on the other hand, are originated by the researcher for the specific problem under study, such as survey data. Secondary data include information made available by business and government sources, commercial marketing research firms, and computerized databases. Secondary data are an economical and quick source of background information.

(easy, pages 39-40)

 

 

78. In a short essay, discuss the differences between a management decision problem and a marketing research problem.

 

Answer

The management decision problem asks what the decision maker needs to do, whereas the marketing research problem asks what information is needed and how it can best be obtained. The management decision problem is action-oriented, framed from the perspective of what should be done, and focuses on the symptoms concerned with the underlying causes. It asks questions such as "How should the loss of market share be arrested? Should the market be segmented differently? Should a new problem be introduced? Should the promotional budget be increased?" In contrast, the marketing research problem is information-oriented. Research is directed at providing the information necessary to make a sound decision. The marketing research problem focuses on the symptoms concerned with the underlying causes. Examples of this type of problem include the determination of the effectiveness of the current advertising campaign and the determination of the impact on sales and problems of various levels of price changes.

(moderate, page 45-47)

 

79. Explain the conceptual map for linking the management decision problem with the marketing research problem. In addition, use the text's example for Cingular Wireless as a guide and develop a conceptual map for retaining families dining at Olive Garden restaurants.

 

Answer

A good way to link the broad statement of the marketing research problem with the management decision problem is by making use of a conceptual map. A conceptual map involves the following three components:

 

Management wants to (take an action).

Therefore, we should study (topic)

So that we can explain (question).

 

The first line states the rationale for the question and the project. This is the management decision problem. The second line of the conceptual map declares what broader topic you are investigating. The third line implies the question you are investigating the who/how/why that you want to explain. Thus, the second and third lines define the broad marketing research problem.

 

An example of the conceptual map for Olive Garden Restaurants follows:

 

Management wants to (develop retention programs that will retain 90% of family diners and lead to 10% higher sales over the next two years).

Therefore, we should study (family diner loyalty),

So that we can explain (what will be the most important variables in retaining these customers over the next 2 years).

 

As can be seen, the preceding example provides valuable definitions of the management decision problem and the broad marketing research problems that are closely linked. The problem is now focused upon a segment of customers (family diners) and one behavior of these customers (staying with the company over the next 2 years). Measurable results, such as "90 per cent retention of family diners" are included, as well as a company goal (ten per cent increase in sales over the next two years).

(moderate, pages 46-47)

 

 

80. In a short essay, discuss the characteristics of an analytical model and list and discuss the three most common forms of this model.

 

Answer

An analytical model consists of a set of variables related in a specified manner to represent all or a part of some real system or process. Models can take many forms. The most common are verbal, graphical, and mathematical structures. In verbal models, the variables and their relationships are stated in prose form. These models are often a summary or restatement of the main points of the theory. Graphical models are visual and pictorially represent the theory. They are used to isolate variables and to suggest directions of relationships but are not designed to provide numerical results. They are logical, preliminary steps to developing mathematical models. Mathematical models explicitly specify the strength and direction of relationships among variables, usually in equation form.

(moderate, page 50)

 

81. In a short essay, discuss the characteristics of research questions and a hypothesis.

 

Answer

a. Research questions are refined statements of the specific components of the problem. A problem component may break into several research questions. Research questions are designed to ask the specific information required to address each problem component. Research questions that successfully address the problem components will provide valuable information for the decision maker. The formulation of the research questions should be guided, not only by the problem definition, but also by the analytical framework and the model adopted.

b. A hypothesis is an unproven statement or proposition about a factor or phenomenon that is of interest to the researcher. It may be a tentative statement about the relationships discussed in the theoretical framework or represented in the analytic model. The hypothesis may also be stated as a possible answer to the research question. Hypotheses are statements about proposed relationships rather than merely questions to be answered. They reflect the researchers' expectation and can be tested empirically. Hypotheses also play the important role of suggesting variables to be included in the research design.

(moderate, pages 50-51)

 

 

Chapter 3 Research Design

 


Date: 2016-01-14; view: 802


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