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GRAPHICAL RULES

Vowel 1/i:/

Graphical Rules:

Vowel 1 is represented in spelling by:

1. the letter e in open and historically open syllables (be, meter, these, theme);

2. the digraphs: meet, see, feel, tree

ea meat, seat, peace

ie piece, field, believe

ei ceiling, receive

Rare Spellings: people, key, breathe, wreathe.

/i:/ in proverbs and sayings:

1. A friend in need is a friend indeed.

2. No sweet without some sweat.

3. Extremes meet.

 

Vowel 2 /I/

Graphical Rules:

Vowel 2 is represented in spelling by:

1. the letters i, in stressed closed syllables (myth, syllable);

2. y, ey when unstressed (city, baby, money, family, hockey, valley);

3. ai when unstressed (fountain, mountain, portrait, captain);

4. the letter e in prefixes (before, begin, decide).

Rare Spelling: busy, build, biscuit, foreign, women, coffee.

/I/ in proverbs and sayings:

1. As fit as a fiddle.

2. As busy as a bee.

3. Little pitches have big ears.

Vowel 3 /e/

Graphical Rules:

Vowel 3 is represented in spelling by:

1. the letter e in closed accented syllables (red, better);

2. the digraph ea before d (bread, head, dead);

th (breath, death, weather).

Irregular Spelling; deaf, heavy, measure, pleasure, pleasant, health, wealth, meant, breakfast, weapon.

Rare Spelling: any, man, friend, says, said.

 

/e/ in proverbs and sayings:

1. Many men, many minds.

2. Better to do well, than to say well.

3. Better late than never, but never late is better.

4. All is well, that ends well.

 

Vowel 4 /{/

Graphical Rules;

Vowel 4 is represented in spelling by:

the letter a in closed syllables (lad, glad, scratch, cramped).

NOTE. A number of three-syllable words with the accented letter a in an open syllable fall under this rule (family, cavity, vanity).

 

/{/ in proverbs and sayings:

1. No living man all things can.

2. Who chatters to you will chatter of you.

3. He that hatches matches hatches catches.

Vowel 5 /A:/

Graphical Rules:

Vowel 5 is represented in spelling by:

1. the digraph ar (cart, party);

2. the letter a followed by

ss pass, glass sp grasp, clasp

st past, fast ft after, craft

sk ask, basket th path, father

3. a followed by lf, lm (half, calf, calm, palm);

4. ance, and in words of French origin (France, glance, demand, command) when stressed.

Rare Spelling: aunt, draught, clerk, heart, hearth, bazaar, drama, aria, tomato, banana, garage, moustache, vase.

/A:/ in proverbs and savings:

1. He laughs best who laughs last.

2. After a storm comes a calm.

3. Each dog barks in his own yard.

4. Art is long, life is short.

 

Vowel 6 /Q/

Graphical Rules:

Vowel 6 is represented in spelling by:

1. the letter o in closed stressed syllables (not, office);

2. the digraph wa (was, want, wasp);

3. qua (quality, quantity) except quarter.

Rare Spelling: because, cough, knowledge, sausage.

/Q/ in proverbs and sayings:



1. Honesty is the best policy.

2. A little pot is soon hot.

3. Be slow to promise and quick to perform.

4. Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today.

 

Vowel 7 /O:/

Graphical Rules:

Vowel 7 is represented in spelling by:

1. oor, our, oar (floor, door, your, course, board);

2. . the digraph or third syllable type (port, sort);

3. a followed by ll, l + cons. (all, tall, salt, chalk, wall);
4. ough, augh + t (thought, bought, caught, taught);

5. war (warm, ward).

Irregular readings: our, flour, sour, poor.

/O:/ in proverbs and sayings:

It never rains but it pours.

Vowel 8 /U/

Graphical Rules:

Vowel 8 is represented in spelling by:

 

1. the digraph oo followed by k (book, look, took);

2. the letter u after p, b, f (pull, bull, full).

 

Irregular Reading: but, bus, butter.

Rare Spelling: could, should, would, wolf, bouquet.

 

/U/ in proverbs and sayings:

1. A good beginning makes a good ending.

2. A good cook never cooks while looking into a cookery book.

3. Look before you leap.

 

Vowel 9 /u:/

Graphical Rules:

Vowel 9 is represented in spelling by:

1. the letter u in open syllables (tune, due, puny)

NOTE: It sounds /u:/ preceded by l, j, r (June, rule, blue, true);

2. the digraphs eu, ew (neutral, feudal, few, new);

3. ui (suit, fruit, cruise);

4. the digraph ou in words of French origin (group, soup, route, youth, wound, rouge, you).

Rare Spelling: shoe, beauty, queue, who, whom, whose, do, to, two, tomb.

/u:/ in proverbs and sayings:

1. No news is good news.

2. Bad news has wings.

3. Thats where the shoe pinches.

 

Vowel 10 /V/

Graphical Rules:

Vowel 10 is represented in spelling by:

1. the letter u in stressed syllables (hurry, uncle, consult);

2. followed by m, n, v, th (come, some, son, ton, love, govern, mother, other);

3. the digraph ou followed by gh, bl(e), pl(e) (tough, enough, trouble, double, couple);

4. ou + other consonants (country, courage, cousin, youth, southern).

Rare and irregular spelling: blood, flood, worry, shove.

/V/ in proverbs and sayings:

1. So many countries so many customs.

2. Don't trouble trouble until trouble troubles you.

3. Love me, love my dog.

4. When two Sundays come together.

5. A storm in a tea-cup.

6. A man is known by the company he keeps.

7. As hungry as a hunter.

 

Vowel 11 /3:/

Graphical Rules:

Vowel 11 is represented in spelling by:

1. e, i, u, followed by r third syllable type (term, service, bird, stir, fir, nurse, fur, turn);

2. ear + consonant (earth, heard).

Irregular readings: heart, hearth, worn, work, worst.

 

/3:/ in proverbs and sayings:

1. Its an early bird that catches the first worm.

2. First come, first served.

3. Live and learn.

 

Vowel 12 /@/

Graphical Rules:

Vowel 12 is represented in spelling by:

1. the letter a in prefixes (about, asleep);

2. in suffixes er, or, ar, oar, ous (teacher, doctor, cellar, flavour, famous);

3. a, o, u non-accented (sofa, atom, column).

Diphthong 13 /eI/

Graphical Rules:

Diphthong 13 is represented in spelling by:

1. the letter "a" in open syllables (take, lake);

2. the digraphs ai, ay (main, plain, may, play);

3. ei, ey (veil, vein, neighbour, grey, they, convey).

Irregular Readings: key, height.

/eI/ in proverbs and sayings:

1. Make hey while the sun shines.

2. Make haste slowly.

3. Haste makes waste.

4. No gains without some pains.

 

Diphthong 14 /@U/

Graphical Rules:

Diphthong 14 is represented in spelling by:

1. the letter o in open syllables (go, home, moment);

2. the letter o followed by ll, ld, st (polk, roll, old, told, most, post);

3. the digraph ow (low, show, know, tomorrow);

4. the digraph oa (boat, road, load);

5. the letter in word-final unstressed syllables (hero, photo, potato).

Exceptions to memorize: now, how, cow, row, brow, bow.

Irregular Spelling: shoulder, poultry, soul, owe, mould.

 

/@U/ in proverbs and sayings:

1. As you sow you shall mow./As you sow, so shall you reap.

2. True love never grows old.

3. When at Rome do as Romans do.

4. Be slow to promise and quick to perform.

 

Diphthong 15 /aI/

Graphical Rules:

Diphthong 15 is represented in spelling by:

1. the letters i, in stressed open syllable (lie, fly, final, lime);

2. igh followed by t (light, night, sight);

3. the letter i followed by ld, nd (child, wild, kind, blind).

 

Irregular Spelling: either, neither.

 

Irregular Readings: wind, city, pity.

 

Diphthong 16 /aU/

Graphical Rules:

Diphthong 16 is represented in spelling by:

1. the digraph ou (out, thousand, stout);

2. the digraph ow (town, down, towel).

Irregular Spelling: drought, bough, plough.

/aU/ in proverbs and sayings;

1. A sound mind in a sound body.

2. Every cloud has a silver lining.

3. Actions speak louder than words.

4. To come out dry.

5. When angry, count a hundred.

 

Diphthong 17 /OI/

Graphical Rules:

Diphthong 17 is represented in spelling by:

the digraph oi, oy (oil, boil, toy, oyster).

Irregular Readings: tortoise.

 

/OI/ in proverbs and sayings:

The voice of one man is the voice of no man.

 

Diphthong 18 /I@/

Graphical Rules:

Diphthong 18 is represented in spelling by:

1. the letter combinations ere, ear, eer (here, sphere, hear, dear, fear, deer, beer, pioneer);

2. the letter combination ier (pier, fierce, cashier);

3. the letter e in open accented syllables + r (era, hero, period, serious).

Rare Spelling: theory, museum, theatre, idea, beard, real.

 

/I@/ in proverbs and sayings:

1. Neither here nor there.

2. Experience is the best teacher.

3. To be up to the ears in love.

 

Diphthong 19 /e@/

Graphical Rules:

Diphthong 19 is represented in spelling by:

 

1. the letter combinations are, air (hare, fare, care, prepare, hair, chair, air);

2. the letter a in open accented syllable followed by r (vary, Mary, parent, variant).

NOTE. Mind the rr case: marry, parrot.

Irregular Spelling: are, bear, wear, tear, where, there.

/e@/ in proverbs and sayings:

1. Where there's a will, there's a way.

2. After rain comes fair weather.

3. If you run after two hares, you'll catch neither.

 

Diphthong 20 /U@/

Graphical Rules:

Diphthong 20 is represented in spelling by:

1. the letter combination ure (cure, pure, sure);

2. the letter u in open accented syllable (fury, during).

Rare Spelling: poor, moor, tour, Europe.

Irregular Readings: to bury.

 

/U@/ in proverbs and sayings:

1. What can't be cured must be endured.

2. Slow but sure.

3. Curiosity killed a cat.


Tongue twisters


Six sick slick slim sycamore saplings.

 

A box of biscuits, a batch of mixed biscuits

 

A skunk sat on a stump and thunk the stump stunk,

but the stump thunk the skunk stunk.

 

Red lorry, yellow lorry, red lorry, yellow lorry.

 

Unique New York.

 

Six thick thistle sticks. Six thick thistles stick.

 

Is this your sister's sixth zither, sir?

 

A big black bug bit a big black bear,

made the big black bear bleed blood.

 

The sixth sick sheik's sixth sheep's sick.

 

Toy boat. Toy boat. Toy boat.

 

One smart fellow, he felt smart.

Two smart fellows, they felt smart.

Three smart fellows, they all felt smart.

 

Pope Sixtus VI's six texts.

 

I slit the sheet, the sheet I slit, and on the slitted sheet I sit.

 

She sells sea shells by the sea shore.

The shells she sells are surely seashells.

So if she sells shells on the seashore,

I'm sure she sells seashore shells.

 

Mrs. Smith's Fish Sauce Shop.

 

Shy Shelly says she shall sew sheets.

 

Three free throws.

 

Sam's shop stocks short spotted socks.

 

Knapsack straps.

 

Which wristwatches are Swiss wristwatches?

 

Lesser leather never weathered wetter weather better.

 

Inchworms itching.

 

A noisy noise annoys an oyster.

 

The myth of Miss Muffet.

 

Friendly Frank flips fine flapjacks.

 

Vincent vowed vengeance very vehemently.

 

Cheap ship trip.

 

I cannot bear to see a bear

Bear down upon a hare.

When bare of hair he strips the hare,

Right there I cry, "Forbear!"

 

Lovely lemon liniment.

 

Gertie's great-grandma grew aghast at Gertie's grammar.

 

Tim, the thin twin tinsmith

 

Fat frogs flying past fast.

 

Flee from fog to fight flu fast!

 

Greek grapes.

 

The boot black bought the black boot back.

 

How much wood would a woodchuck chuck

if a woodchuck could chuck wood?

He would chuck, he would, as much as he could,

and chuck as much wood as a woodchuck would

if a woodchuck could chuck wood.

 

We surely shall see the sun shine soon.

 

Moose noshing much mush.

 

Sly Sam slurps Sally's soup.

 

Six short slow shepherds.

 

Which witch wished which wicked wish?

 

Old oily Ollie oils old oily autos.

 

The two-twenty-two train tore through the tunnel.

 

Twelve twins twirled twelve twigs.

 

Three gray geese in the green grass grazing.

Gray were the geese and green was the grass.

Many an anemone sees an enemy anemone.

Nine nice night nurses nursing nicely.

 

Peggy Babcock.

 

Black bug's blood.

 

Flash message!

 

Six sticky sucker sticks.

 

If Stu chews shoes, should Stu

choose the shoes he chews?

 

Crisp crusts crackle crunchily.

 

Give papa a cup of proper coffee in a copper coffee cup.

 

Six sharp smart sharks.

 

What a shame such a shapely sash

should such shabby stitches show.

 

Sure the ship's shipshape, sir.

 

Betty better butter Brad's bread.

 

Sixish.

 

Don't pamper damp scamp tramps that camp under ramp lamps.

 

Six shimmering sharks sharply striking shins.

 

I thought a thought.

But the thought I thought wasn't the thought I thought I thought.

 

Brad's big black bath brush broke.

Thieves seize skis.

 

Chop shops stock chops.

Strict strong stringy Stephen Stretch

slickly snared six sickly silky snakes.

 

Truly rural.

 

The blue bluebird blinks.

 

Betty and Bob brought back blue balloons from the big bazaar.

 

The Leith police dismisseth us.

 

The seething seas ceaseth

and twiceth the seething seas sufficeth us.

 

Plague-bearing prairie dogs.

 

Ed had edited it.

 

She sifted thistles through her thistle-sifter.

 

Give me the gift of a grip top sock:

a drip-drape, ship-shape, tip-top sock.

 

While we were walking, we were watching window washers

wash Washington's windows with warm washing water.

 

Freshly fried fresh flesh.

 

Pacific Lithograph.

 

Six twin screwed steel steam cruisers.

 

The crow flew over the river with a lump of raw liver.

Preshrunk silk shirts

 

A bloke's back bike brake block broke.

 

A pleasant place to place a plaice is a place where a plaice is pleased to be placed.

 

I correctly recollect Rebecca MacGregor's reckoning.

 

Good blood, bad blood.

 

Quick kiss. Quicker kiss.

 

I saw Esau kissing Kate. I saw Esau,

he saw me, and she saw I saw Esau.

 

Cedar shingles should be shaved and saved.

 

Lily ladles little Letty's lentil soup.

 

Shelter for six sick scenic sightseers.

 

Listen to the local yokel yodel.

 

Give Mr. Snipa's wife's knife a swipe.

 

Whereat with blade,

with bloody, blameful blade,

he bravely broached his boiling bloody breast.

 

Are our oars oak?

 

Can you imagine an imaginary menagerie manager

imagining managing an imaginary menagerie?

 

A lusty lady loved a lawyer

and longed to lure him from his laboratory.

 

The epitome of femininity.

 

Kris Kringle carefully crunched on candy canes.

 

Please pay promptly.

 

What time does the wristwatch strap shop shut?

 

Girl gargoyle, guy gargoyle.

 

If a Hottentot taught a Hottentot tot

 

Will you, William?

 

Mix, Miss Mix!

 

Who washed Washington's white woolen underwear

when Washington's washer woman went west?

 

Two toads, totally tired.

 

Freshly-fried flying fish.

 

The sawingest saw I ever saw saw

was the saw I saw saw in Arkansas.

 

Just think, that sphinx has a sphincter that stinks!

 

Strange strategic statistics.

 

Sarah sitting in her Chevrolet,

All she does is sits and shifts,

All she does is sits and shifts.

 

Hi-Tech Traveling Tractor Trailor Truck Tracker

 

Six slippery snails, slid slowly seaward.

 

Three twigs twined tightly.

 

The ochre ogre ogled the poker.

 

Shredded Swiss chesse.

 

The soldiers shouldered shooters on their shoulders.

 

Theophiles Thistle, the successful thistle-sifter,

in sifting a sieve full of un-sifted thistles,

thrust three thousand thistles through the thick of his thumb.

 

Success to the successful thistle-sifter!

 

Thank the other three brothers of their father's mother's brother's side.

 

They both, though, have thirty-three thick thimbles to thaw.

 

Irish wristwatch.

 

Fred fed Ted bread, and Ted fed Fred bread.

 

Cows graze in groves on grass which grows in grooves in groves.

 

Tragedy strategy.

 


Practical assignments

 

Stress

 

Task 1

Write the words listed below in groups according to the following accentual patterns:

-æ - (-); - -æ ; - -æ - (æ-); -æ -æ; -æ - -æ (-):

expose, re-pay, illustrate, forbear, make-up, debate, admission, event, get off, dressing-table, vacancy, pedagogic, vice-dean, discontent, demonstration, well-bred, exact, compensate, antiphonic, exclamation, foresee, multiply, begin, submarine, blue-eyed, celebrate, ice-cream, behave, parenthetic, tape recorder, procession, registration, well-shaped, paraphrase, economic, parenthesis, introduction, machinery.

Task 2

Write the words listed below in groups according to the following accentual patterns:

-æ - (-); - -æ ; - -æ - (æ-); -æ -æ; -æ - -æ (-):

Advertise, conversation, demonstrate, believe, antifascist, sitting-room, recognize, composition, postwar, forget, appreciate, situate, armchair, patriotic, academy, inconvenient, election, forbid, gas-stove, economy, blackboard,criticize, recollect, well-known, beefsteak, vice-president, revolution, become, get up, fair-haired, redress, sympathetic, make up, fourteen, picturesque, put on.

Task 3

Write the words listed below in groups according to the following accentual patterns:

-æ - (-); - -æ - (-); %- - - -æ -; - %- - -æ -; -æ - -æ - (-); %- - - - -æ -:

Father, phonetics, compound, organisation, phonotactics, practice, saying, communication, allophone, attitude, international, loudness, nucleus, intensity, opposition, pronunciation, syllable, classify, reduction, articulation, phoneme, modification, prosody, palatalisation, quality.


Linking of words in connected speech

 

1.Linking r

Practise the following word combinations and phrases

"father-in-Îlaw a "lecture on Îhistory "ask for a Îfavour

"mother-in-Îlaw a picture of aÎcity "send for a Îdoctor

"daughter-in-Îlaw a "teacher of ÎEnglish a "glass or a Îcup

"brother-in-Îlaw the "author of the Înovel "closed or Îopen

"father and Îmother the "Tower of ÎLondon "German or ÎEnglish

"neither is ÎAnn "Arthur is Îhere.

"neither are Îwe I "cant hear Îanything.

the "door is Îopen The "teacher is in the Îclassroom.

the "floor is Îclean They are in the "other Îroom.

they are Îeasy She has a "shower every Îday.

they are Îours We have a "seminar on ÎWednesday.

 

2.A consonant with a vowel at the junction of words

Practise the following words, word combinations and phrases:

an Îuncle "went a"way the "first of ÎJanuary

an Îactress "half an Îhour the "fourth of ÎApril

his Îaunt "once or Îtwice the "fifth of ÎMarch

his Îuncle my "wife and ÎI the "eighth of ÎAugust

the "ninth of OcÎtober "Good Îevening. Its "always Îgreen

the e"leventh of DeÎcember "Good afterÎnoon Its "almost Îopen

the "twelfth of NoÎvember Its "all Îright. Its "always Îlate

the "thirteenth of SepÎtember Its "also Înice. Its "Andrews Îaunt.

 

3.Two adjacent vowels in a word and at a word boundary

Practise the following words, word combinations and phrases:

the Îartist to Îearn the Îtwentieth the Îeasiest Îtrying

the Îactress to Îown the Îthirtieth the Îearlliest Îgoing

the ÎIndian to Îenvy the Îfortieth the Îheaviest Îdrying

the Îearth to Îargue the "fiftieth the Îhappiest Îcrying

the Îonly to Îoccupy the Îsixtieth Îyellowish Îliving

the Îeleventh to inÎvent the Îeightieth Îbluish Îstaying

"very Îoften "only a "few Îdays Its a "new Îopera.

"very Îinteresting "every "other Îday Its a "very easy Îexercise.

"pretty Îawful "nearly a "whole Îweek There are "only Îeight.

 

 


Date: 2015-01-02; view: 933


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