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Logical Stress

 

Logical Stress serves to mark the semantic center of the utterance (a word or a word-group that carries new information important for the speaker).

Logical Stress is observed when the syntagmatic stress is shifted from its normal place (the last notional word of the intonation-group) to any of the preceding words thus creating a new semantic center. Logical Stress is always combined with one of the moving tones.

Stress on words that follow logical stress either disappears (rapid colloquial) or becomes partial (slow colloquial).

e.g. He "left for °Kyiv %yesterday.||

He °left for %Kyiv %yesterday.||

He "left for "Kyiv °yesterday.||

°He left for %Kyiv %yesterday.||

 

Some Rules of Syntagmatic Division

When we speak we make pauses necessary for understanding. They divide the speech-flow into syntagms. The syntagmatic division depends on the tempo and style of speech. The slow colloquial style is characterised by a greater number of intonation groups, than the rapid colloqual.

Simple extended sentence

1. The subject group and the predicate group consisting of more than one word form separate syntagms (extended subject group).

"John’s °sisterÅ "entered the °room.||

Note. One-word subject can form a separate syntagm if it is emphasised (one of the complex tones must be used on it).

ëMaryÅ is "John’s °sister.||

2. Homogeneous predicates or other members of the sentence:

"John °cameÅ but "didn’t stay °long.||

3. An adverbial or parenthetical phrase at the beginning of the sentence.

A "few "minutes ,laterÅ we "heard a "ring at the °door.||

To "tell the ,truthÅ, he’s "never °late.||

4. An apposition makes up a separate syntagm.||

"Betty °SmithÅ, my "wife’s °nieceÅ, °lives with us.||

5. Alternative and disjunctive questions

Do you "live ,hereÅ or "out of °town?||

You" live °hereÅ, °don’t you?||

Note. In slow colloquial style participial, gerundial, infinitive, prepositional phrases can form syntagms.

 

Complex and Compound Sentences

 

They make up two syntagms.

If you are ,lateÅ"ask per"mission to "come °in.||

Note. Two-member principle clause and an object clause as a subordinate one are joined into one syntagm.

 

He "says

I "think he was °late.||

I "know

I "suppose


Date: 2015-01-02; view: 1761


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Variations in Sentence Stress | GRAPHICAL RULES
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