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Writing a summary (an abstract)[4] of a text, a book, an academic paper etc.


Steps in writing a summary


If you follow the steps below, you will have an excellent chance of producing a useful and accurate summary:


1. Read the article once for general comprehension without taking notes.


2. Reread and underline the main points (ideas) and supporting details.


3. Take notes on the main points and supporting details on a separate sheet of paper. Be careful to use your own words!


4. Using your notes, write the introductory statement of your summary, explaining what the original is about.


5. Write the body of your summary, using your own words and making sure to cover all the key points and add important supporting or explanatory details.


6. Write your last part, in which you explain what the original author’s conclusions were. Be sure to keep your own opinions out of this part. Even though the summary is organized by you and is written in your own words, it should not contain your ideas.


7. Reread and edit your summary. Correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.


8. Write a clean draft and proofread for copying errors.


Here are a few tips for you about writing a summary

and some useful expressions

· In the introductory statement if your summary

a) cite the author, title, source, and, in the case of a magazine or journal article, the date of publication;

b) state the topic or general subject matter of the text:

Storey J (1989) Human resource management in the public sector. Public Money and Management, 9(3):19-24.  
The article is devoted to … The article deals with … The text presents… - the analysis of … - the comparison of … - the description of … - the discussion of … - the results of the research on / in (investigation of / into, study of) … - a review of literature on …
The author - analyses … - compares … - describes - discloses (reveals)… - reviews … - shows (demonstrates)… - provides the reader with ...  
In the book ‘Motivation and Personality’ A. Maslow discusses ….  
Text ‘Groups and Teams in the organization’ - presents… - describes…  
In the article on Orientation and Training of Employees (Ohio State University Fact Sheet), Mark Mechling explains ….  


ñ) point out the purpose of the underlying research or the piece of writing:


The purpose of the article (text / chapter, etc) is … - to inform … - to clarify …   - to determine (ascertain, establish) … - to elucidate … - to explain … - to prove (validate) … - to substantiate … - to compare … - to persuade …  

· In the body of your summary

d) present the main points of the piece of writing:


The author begins by explaining ...  
The author emphasizes (stresses) the importance of …  
The author focuses on …  
Special emphasis (stress) is laid (placed, put) on …  
Particular importance (significance, value, weight) is attached to …  
Readers’ attention is called (attracted, drawn) to …  
The author uses examples to confirm / prove that…  
The obtained data are exemplified with …


· In the final part of your summary

e) explain the author’s conclusions

The author makes two important implications (inferences, conclusions).    
Hence (therefore, thus) it is concluded that …  
It follows from these findings that …  

f) indicate the target readership of the piece of writing:

The article (text / section, etc.) is intended for …  
The article (text / chapter, etc) will be useful (helpful, valuable) for ... - bankers and accountants   - personnel managers - students of Economics - students majoring in HR management  
The book is intended for a wide audience, including ...  


Read the following summary of text 5.


Text “Forecasting supply of employees” is devoted to measures that are crucial for estimating the future supply of individuals with appropriate skills. The author shows the essence of two predictions involved in the aforementioned process and gives description of the relevant forecasting techniques. Particular importance is attached to such a quantitative technique as Markov Modelling. The application of a qualitative forecasting method - the Delphi technique - is exemplified with an imaginary business situation. Readers’ attention is called to practical effects of the techniques under consideration. The text is intended for students majoring in human resource management.



3. Write the summary of text 6.


Date: 2015-01-02; view: 682

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