There are many aspects to the job of a manager and there is no complete agreement as to what exactly constitutes the job of a manager. Managers are charged with responsibility of taking actions that will make it possible for individuals to make their best contributions to group objectives.
A manager and his work collective must become partners. Managers and employees must be equally interested in the fruits of their labor.
In a result-oriented management the key thing is not to issue instructions but to get results. That's why a manager's pay should be linked to the performance of the enterprise where he works. If a factory produces more, a manager's pay should increase. If the production plan is not met, then a manager must be penalized along with the workers he supervises. About 40 or 50 per cent of a manager's monthly pay should depend on the end result of the enterprise. If the result is poor and the manager doesn't get the full pay for a few months running he must leave his office. New people should come instead. It'll be a natural selection of a manager's staff when people with better knowledge, more expertise and truly original thinking will come to management.
Leadership is an important issue of managership: the ability to lead effectively is one of the keys to being an effective manager. Doing the entire managerial job demands that a manager is an effective leader. We define leadership as influence; the art of process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically toward the achievement of group goals. There are three main leadership styles, classified on the basis of how leaders use their authority: autocratic, democratic and free-rein leader. The autocratic leader is defined as one who commands and expects compliance, who is dogmatic and positive, and who leads by the ability to withhold or give rewards and punishment.
The democratic, or participative, leader consults with subordinates on proposed actions and decisions and encourages participation from them. This type of leader is seen as ranging from the person who doesn't take action without subordinates' concurrence to the one who makes decisions but consults with subordinates before doing so.
The free-rein leader uses his or her power very little, if at all, giving subordinates a high degree of independence, or free rein, in their operations. Such leaders depend largely on subordinates to set their own goals and the means of achieving them, and they see their role as one of aiding the operations of followers by giving them the necessary information and acting primarily as a contact with the group's external environment.
Task 1. Match the words on the left (1-9) with their equivalents on the right (a-i).
1. factory a) results of work
2. work collective b) staff
3. partners c) productivity
4. fruits of labor d) salary'
5. instructions e) to raise
6. performance f) plant
7. pay g) directions
8. to increase h) to fine
9. to penalize i) colleague
Task 2. Complete the sentences below.
1. A manager and his staff must become...
2. Managers and employees must be equally interested in....
a) The results of their cooperation
b) The bankruptcyof their enterprise
c) Their salary
3. A manager's pay should be linked to...
a) The Director's salary
b) The common staff salary
c) The performance of their enterprise
4. If a factory produces more, a manager's pay should...
c) Remain unchanged
5. It'll be……………..when people with better knowledge, more expertise and truly original thinking will come to management.
b) A natural selection of a managerial staff.
Task 3. Answer the following questions:
1. What relationship should be built between Management and staff?
2. How should the work of a manager be assessed (îöåíèâàòüñÿ)?
3. Should a manager fill in the vacancy on a competitive basis?
4. Why is it essential to manage the managers?
to assess - îöåíèâàòü
to compete – êîíêóðèðîâàòü, ñîðåâíîâàòüñÿ
Task 4. What is most important for a true manager? Rank the words listed below.
....adaptability to change
... .gift from the God
... .life experience
Task 5. Give an extensive answer to the following questions:
What business and personal qualities do you appreciate in a manager?
Have you got any of these qualities?
What type of leadership do you prefer? Why?
You need to know what you do know in order to find what you don't know. Reflect on what you've studied. Thinking about what you've read or listened to lets you find what you know for sure, and what you don't. Ask yourself questions so the picture in your head is clear, and the events are in an order that makes sense to you.
In the text you're studying, or in a newspaper, find a word you don't know. Cover that word. Look at the rest of the sentence and decide what the sentence could mean without the word you covered. If the sentence isn't clear on its own, write what you know for sure about the meaning of the sentence. Try to draw a picture of the sentence, or to make sense of it in any way that suits your learning style. Now, ask yourself what you need to know to make the sentence clearer. Write down your questions or record them into an audiotape.
Then go back to the original sentence and choose a word or phrase that could replace the unfamiliar word. Check to see that your word or phrase makes your picture clearer. You made a definition based on what you knew—the words around the unknown word—to find out what you didn't know.
Now look in the dictionary and see how close you came!
You pay closer attention to what you're learning, and even enjoy the process, when what you're studying interests you. Even if something doesn't naturally interest you, you can make it interesting by connecting it with something you already know. When you can build on what you already know, you're more likely to remember what you learned.
Getting Involved in Learning
ave you had the experience of sitting in
a waiting room and picking up a magazine simply for something to do? Maybe it's a magazine on a hobby you're not at
all interested in. But, it looks like you'll have a long wait, so you begin looking through it. You begin feeling bored. Then something catches your eye. Maybe it's a photograph of a place you'd like to visit. Maybe it's an article on including pets in a hobby. You become interested. You find yourself getting into the magazine so much that you're almost disappointed when it's time for your appointment
You become interested in something new—something you haven't learned before—when you can relate it to something you already know.
USE YOUR HIDDEN CAMERA
÷ Have you ever looked at the front page of a newspaper and suddenly seen something familiar pop out at you? Maybe someone with the same first name as you was being quoted. Or your hometown was mentioned. You didn't really read the article; the name or the name of the town just seemed to flash before you. Or, maybe you were walking past a clothing store, and out of the corner of your eye you saw "your" slacks on display. They weren't really your slacks, but they were very much like the ones you have. They were so familiar to you that you noticed them without looking for them.
What's at work here is your "hidden camera." When you look at something quickly, such as when you skim a newspaper article, that camera can zoom in on a word, name, or phrase it recognizes. When you use your hidden camera, you're taking the first step to becoming interested.
You can become interested in what you're about to study in the same way you became interested in the waiting-room magazine. Use your hidden camera to find something you already know. Skim what you're about to read—you're not reading for meaning here, only to become interested! You're just looking for something you've seen before. Once you've found it, read around that part first. Enjoy yourself. Then read around other familiar parts. You're likely to find that what you have to read no longer seems strange—you're interested! Then you're ready to begin the real reading.
\ The Ear Has a Hidden Camera, Too!
Just as you can see without looking, you can hear without listening. Have you ever been near enough to a group of people to hear that they're talking, but not close enough to be able to hear what they're saying? Or maybe you weren't paying attention because your attention was on something else. Then one person said something really familiar, perhaps your name or your hometown. You automatically stopped whatever else you were thinking or doing and tuned into their conversation. You didn't mean to overhear what they were saying, but that familiar thing
just seemed to pop out at you. Because you heard it, you might've tried to hear what else was being said. That's when you became interested.
Try using your ear's hidden camera the next time you're listening to an audiotape—whether it's a speech you're studying or a recording of notes you made. Skim the tape. Listen for what's especially familiar. Write down what interests you. Then you're ready to listen to the whole tape. You'll be paying more attention because you've found something that interests you.
Often, the more we know about something (or someone!), the more interested we are.
Familiarity Breeds Interest
Think of someone you like, but who took some time to get to know.Write in your notebook your response to this question:
What is the difference between the way I first felt about Lauren, and the way I feel about her now?
You probably feel closer to Lauren now because at one time you noticed something you both had in common, something you could relate to. That motivated you to find out more about her. "Oh, you like movies, too?" you may have asked. When Lauren said "Yes," you wanted to find out more, so perhaps you asked, "What kind of movies do you prefer? Who are your favorite actors?"
Getting to know a subject or text can be a lot like getting to know a friend. The more interests you find, the more comfortable you'll feel with what you're studying, and the more you'll learn.
It's All Relative
Relatives have something in common. Tony has Uncle Jake's nose. Beryl has her grand-aunt's eyes. What is new (Tony and Beryl) is related to what is known (Uncle Jake and the grand-aunt). There is a connection between the relatives (nose and eyes). When you add new information to what you already know, you make a shared connection. To learn, you need to relate what's new to what you already know.
Relating to Something New
Look at whatever is around you, no matter where you are as you read this. Choose two items that you see that are different from each other. For example, you might pair a pencil with a stapler, and a speed bump with a tree. Write in your notebook two things that the items have in common. If you don't know how to start, think about what you know about each item, then ask yourself some questions: "What could a pencil and a stapler have in common?" or "How could a speed bump have anything to do with a tree?" When you find even one answer, you've related one item to the other!
Note First, Then Question
You might have answered your question with something you noticed: "Well, the pencil and stapler are both used in office work," or "The speed bump is on the ground, and the tree grows from the ground." Then, you asked another question, such as: "What else do they have in common?" You studied them some more, and noticed something like, "The inside of the pencil is the same color as the stapler," or "The top of the tree is rounded, and so is the top of the speed bump."
You've just done a scientific analysis! You noted your observations and made connections. You do this, too, in reading or listening. You make note of what you recognize, ask yourself how that can relate to something else, and discover your answers and connections as you study.
The way you answer your questions shows your interests. If your interests aren't the same as mine (and the chance that we are exactly alike is very small), your answers will probably be different from mine! Different people have different interests—and different ways of relating what they've learned to what they know.
Use Your Interests!
You can become more involved with studying if you start with what you like.
If You Are Reading
Skim the text to find something you're interested in. Start backwards, if you'd like. If it's a book, check the table of contents or index. Choose a topic you like, and begin reading there. As you read, remember to take notes or make drawings in your notebook, or speak into your tape recorder. Record what was important or useful to you, as well as what was confusing. Copy the sentence or phrase you'd like to remember, noting the page it's on.
If You Are Listening
If it's an audiotape, listen to it once, just to get started. Then write in your notebook what interested you most about what you heard. Return to that part of the tape and listen to it again.
If you're listening to a lecture or speech, you don't have the opportunity to hear the whole thing once before you start. In that case, you have to try to get interested before the talk begins. Does the lecture have a title, for instance? Perhaps something in that title, if you think about it, will remind you of something you know. Are there any audio-visual aids in the room? Have you been given a handout? Any of these things can help you find out what's interesting to you about the talk before it begins. If the speaker hasn't given you any aids, focus on the speaker him- or herself. Does this look like a person you would trust to give you good information or advice? Does he or she look like someone you know? Even focusing on the speaker's appearance may help you become interested in what the speaker has to say.
What if you're studying something and, despite your best efforts, you don't find anything of particular interest in it? Sometimes you just can't find anything that you can connect with.
In that case, pretend you're someone else who can relate to the material and has an interest in it! You can become interested in a subject when you involve yourself in it, even when you're just role-playing. (See Chapter 5, "Learning by Doing," for more on role-playing and other ways to be an active learner.)
• Pretend you're the instructor; decide what will be the focus of the next class. Let that direct your studying.
• Act! Take on somebody else's interests. If you're studying management, for example, assume the role of a business executive. If you're studying for a science course, pretend you're a research biologist. And so on.
You'll find yourself more responsible for your own learning when you use your interests to connect with what you're studying. The material will be more meaningful to you and you'll enjoy it more. Then you'll remember it better!
Use what interests you. Find something familiar in what you're studying and build on it to help make sense of newer material. You can also become interested in something by taking on someone else's interests. You can pretend you're the instructor, or you can act the part ofsomeone connected to the subject you're studying. When you use interest as your foundation in study, you're assuming more responsibility for your studying. You're making it meaningful to you.
The next time you're looking at a newspaper, choose a section you rarely read. Choose any article in that section.
• Start with the headline. Make it interesting to you by finding a familiar word or phrase and thinking about what you already know about it.
• Use your hidden camera and skim the article to find something else familiar.
• Assume the part of someone in the article who is being quoted. Move around and act as you imagine that person might act as you read the quote aloud.
• What else do you need to know to understand the article? Write a list of questions you have. Direct some of the questions to the reporter who wrote the article, and some of the questions to someone quoted in the article.
• Now you're ready to read the article—with interest!
You can make more sense of what you're reading when you get involved with it. And you can do this by anticipating what you read before you begin. While you read, ask questions, make pictures in your head, take notes, and use your learning styles. Stop when you don't know something, wait until you understand it, and then continue with the reading.
After you've finished reading, think about what you've learned.
Getting More Out of Reading
ere's a hard but not surprising truth:
Reading is work. It can be easy and enjoyable work, like reading a good story or the comics. Or, it can be more
challenging work, such as reading a textbook or other study material.
Now think a minute about work. If you show up at your job and just sit there till quitting time, did you work? No, you put in your time, but you didn't work—and if you keep acting that way, you'll get fired. It's the same way with reading. If you just sit there, moving your eyes over the page, you aren't really reading—and you're not getting anything out of it. To get the most out of what you read, you have to get actively involved in the material. Your mind should be working before, while, and after you read.
There's Reading—and There's Reading
"I just don't get this marine biology book. I can't understand the first chapter. I read it, and I don't get anything out of it," Sally complains to Harry.
"How are you reading it?" Harry asks.
"What do you mean—how?" she answers.
"Well, how involved are you with what you're reading?"
"What do you mean—involved? Reading is like TV, you look at it and you get meaning," Sally says.
"It sounds like you need to read more actively," Harry tells her. "Reading is very different from watching TV."
Sally has a problem. She expects reading to come to her, like her favorite sitcom on TV. She's not treating reading as work, but rather as a relaxing pastime. Having a difficult reading assignment make sense means asking questions, making connections, and creating order—getting involved!
before you read
You have a title, even if you didn't win a world heavyweight boxing match. Mr., Ms., Mrs., and Miss are titles. In a sense, so are Mom, Dad, Sis, and Brother. And there are many more. Get out your notebook and list your own titles. Start with your name, your family relationships, and what people call you in a formal setting (like Mr. or Ms.). List your job titles, and any positions you hold in volunteer or professional organizations.
Like people, chapters, lessons, and books have titles that tell you what they're about. Just as you know Ms. Smith isn't a man, you know the article "Cooking Peas" isn't about carrots. Titles are there to eliminate confusion and give a general impression before the finer details are known. Titles can tell you a lot—don't overlook them!
Test the definition of title by applying it to the chapter you are reading now. The chapter title is "Getting More Out of Reading." Read the summary that appears next to the title. It says the same thing as the chapter title, but in more words. The chapter section you're reading now is called "What's in a Title?" It's part of a larger section called "Before You Read." As you make sense of what the author is saying about titles, you're answering the question of this section's title, "What's in a Title?"
Get Ready to Read
Start thinking about what you will be reading before you even begin to read. First, choose a section to read. If the reading is divided into chapters, a chapter is a good place to start. If it's a long chapter with sub-headings, begin with the first sub-heading. Look at the title of the chapter, the sub-heading, or the article only. Write down your answers to these questions:
• What does the title make you think of?
• What do you expect the reading to be about?
• What questions do you expect the reading to answer?
If Sally, who we met in the beginning of this chapter, followed this advice, her mind wouldn't start to drift to other things, like what she's doing tonight, or how she's going to get home. She would be actively engaged in deciphering titles in her marine biology book. Making a study plan and sticking to it would help Sally stop daydreaming.
If the reading has any illustrations, photographs, or drawings, look at those, too. Write:
• What the illustrations seem to be about
• How the illustrations might connect with the title
When you study the title and illustrations before you read, you are pre-reading. You are preparing to read by first getting in touch with what you already know about the topic.
Using Your Own Special Filing System
Your brain has a wonderful filing system. It files everything you have seen, heard, tasted, and felt. All your experiences are up there—both your actual experiences and what you learned through reading, seeing, and listening. Information is stored in different compartments of your brain; each compartment has a specialty.
When you pre-read, you are reminding yourself of information you already know. You're putting yourself right in front of the "file cabinet" you need, ready to pull other information you already know—and ready to add new information. When you pre-read, you are more likely to remember what you've read. You're also more likely to enjoy it because you've begun to connect it with what you already know.
Sally, the marine biology student, remembers her summer trips to the beach as a child. She remembers the different kinds of shells she collected. Her mental file cabinet is ready for new files on marine biology. She begins making sense of what she is reading—and to enjoy and learn from the marine biology book.
as you read
Now that you've already gotten into the file cabinet in your head by pre-reading, you want to be ready to add new folders or information to your file cabinet. You need to be able to hold onto the new information you'll acquire as you begin to read the article or chapter.
Keeping a Reading Log
When you wrote down or recorded your pre-reading ideas and questions, you began your reading log. This is a notebook (or audiotape) that helps you keep track of what you're reading, what it means to you, what questions you have, and what answers you are discovering.
You add to it when you write and/or draw pictures to make sense of new information. It's a good idea to take notes on everything you read. You might want to use thin notebooks that you can easily carry anywhere you find yourself reading. Perhaps your instructor has test booklets you could use for reading logs. These can be folded into a pocket or purse, making it easy to read and take notes while you're just about anywhere— on the bus, on your lunch hour, in the waiting room.
You might want to make a narrow column on each page of your reading log to jot down the page numbers of the text you're writing notes about. This makes it easy for you to go back to check information. If you're expected to write a report on what you read, your log provides you with a head start. In it, you've already written pages that refer to specific information, quotes of what's important or questionable, your feelings on what you read, questions that you had, and what associations and experiences came to mind.
You can also keep a reading log on audiotape, though this is a little less convenient. However, if you're strongly oriented to using your ears rather than your eyes, you may find that speaking into a tape and listening to it later is more useful than writing in a notebook. In that case, make sure you have a small tape recorder you can carry with you anywhere.
This reading log is just for you. No one else will ever see or hear it unless you choose to show it to someone. So you can write or say whatever you want. Even if the associations you make seem a little silly to you, even if your questions seem too stupid to ask in class—write them down. Those silly associations may help you remember, and those stupid questions can't be answered until you ask them, even of yourself.
Every time you read something new, you're adding to your experience. To help you hold onto the new information, continue to connect it with what you already know. If something is new to you and you have little experience that relates to it, be prepared to stop. Stopping helps you remember and gives your brain time to process what you've just learned.
After you've read the first couple of sentences of a reading, ask yourself what it means and how it goes along with your pre-reading idea of what it was going to be about. Look for the main idea of the reading, which is usually found either in an introduction or first paragraph. (You may wish to review Chapter 8, "Knowing When You Don't Know.")
For example, Sally, who is studying marine biology, should stop and ask herself, "What was in that first paragraph that sticks out in my mind? Is this what I expected from reading the title and subheadings of this chapter?" If nothing stands out about the first paragraph or two, she should go back and read them again.
When Experience Fails You
What about when there's little of your own experience to connect with the reading? You'll probably have trouble understanding. So stop. Take some time to go over the section that's giving you trouble. Use your reading log, re-read the text, and use your learning style to help you understand.
Put It in Your Reading Log
If you're having trouble understanding something you're reading, start by writing about it or talking into your tape recorder. Ask yourself the following questions:
• What does this make me think of?
• What pictures come to mind?
• What is the most important word in the sentence?
Sally found the book's reference to a marine biology lab strange because she had never been in such a lab. She tried to pretend she was a marine biologist. She used her experience of being in her dentist's office. She thought of the different tools her dentist used, and she applied that to imagining what a marine biologist's office might be like. She decided it would be on a boat. Then she went back to the reading and focused on the word laboratory. She felt much more comfortable and secure now that she had formed a picture in her mind. She knew what she was reading.
If the text is yours to keep, circle important words, and draw a picture in the margin of what comes to mind. For now, skip over any words you don't know. This way, you'll keep your pace and hold onto the idea of what you're reading. If the text is not yours, use scrap paper or, better yet, your reading log.