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1. We know the farmer to have a wide range of machinery to plow and disk, and harrow, and plant, and fertilize, and finally har-vest faster, easier and more profitably today. The machine is known to be a device that uses force to accomplish something transmitting and changing force or motion into work.

2. Agricultural implements and machines being very numerous and diversified now may be divided into 4 main groups: tillage equipment, planting equipment, fertilizing equipment, harvesting equipment.

3. The aim of tillage is to prepare the soil for planting and to keep it loose and free from weeds during the growth of crops. The primary tillage equipment used by the farmer includes plows, sub-soilers, and thinners. The secondary tillage equipment embraces harrows, rollers and tools for mulching and fallowing. Plow is designed to eliminate weeds, to prepare a suitable seedbed, to improve the physical condition of the soil. Plows fall into mounted, semi mounted, disc, moldboard plows. The main components of ploughs are the main frame, the share, the moldboard, the disc coulter, the skim coulter, the headstock. The function of sub-soiler is to penetrate into the deeper depths and break up the layers of soil which have become compacted due to the movement of heavy ma-chinery. A harrow is an implement used to level the ground and crush the clods, to stir the soil, and to prevent and destroy weeds. There are three principal kinds of harrow namely the disk, the spike-tooth, and the spring tooth.

4. Cultivation machinery is used to break down the soil before or after a crop is sown for covering seeds, for consolidating the soil and for hoeing out weeds. There are several types of cultivators designed for special crops and conditions: beet and bean cultivators, lister cultivators, rotary hoe cultivators, rod weeders, field cultivators, sub-soil and chisel cultivators.

5. Planting equipment is any power-operated device introduced to place seeds or plant parts in or on the soil for production of food and feed crops. It is classified as row-crop planters, broad-cast planters, grain drills and planting attachments for other equipment.

6. Applying such types of fertilizers as barnyard manure, granular fertilizers, and fertilizers in liquid and gaseous form is necessary where soils are deficient in plant food elements. Such fertilizing equipment as manure spreaders, fertilizer distributors, sprayers are in use.

7. Crops are harvested by the use of many kinds of harvesting equipment for all types of crops. The principal machines required to make hay are mowers, rakes, balers. Grain and all types of seed crops are harvested by combine harvesters. Beet harvesters are available to harvest beet, potato harvesters and diggers being for potatoes.

8. The tractor is the most important machine pulling many kinds of implements that cultivate plant, fertilize, and harvest. Wheeled tractors being used for general farm work, track-laying tractors or crawlers have the great advantage that they can be available for heavy loads on any class of land.



A tractor is a type of vehicle that is particularly constructed to efficiently deliver a tractive effort at a slow speed. The word tractor was taken from a Latin word that means “to pull”. Tractors are special vehicles which are aimed to provide the hauling of trailers and other types of machinery which are used for agricultural and construction purposes.

Farm tractors first made their appearance in the nineteenth century.

The earliest ones were steam-powered portable engines. These were followed by oil-burning and then gasoline-powered tractors. The steam powered engines were in use until the onset of the 20th century, when they were replaced by more reliable internal combustion engines.

A farm tractor is a distinctive, multi-purpose farm vehicle. It is perhaps the most essential of all farm machinery. Farm tractors are used to carry out different agricultural tasks: pulling or pushing machines and trailers for tilling, plowing, harrowing, planting, disking, transporting and providing power supply and other tasks.

A variety of specialty farm tractors have been developed for particular uses. Farm tractors may be divided into two groups: wheeled and track-laying. Wheeled tractors may be subdivided into standard and row-crop types. Standard wheeled tractors are used for general work and do not have the special features associated with row-crop tractors. Row-crop tractors can be used for all ordinary purposes, but in addition they are specially designed for working on root and other row crops. The tractor can pass down rows of corn, tomatoes or other crops without crushing the plants.

Track-laying tractors or crawlers have the great advantage that they can be used for heavy loads on almost any class of land. They are considerably more economical in fuel than are wheel machines, but their greater initial cost and their maintenance particularly that of the tracks, may outweigh this advantage. The crawler is, however, the more efficient type of tractor and, moreover, can go on the land earlier after rain and so can work a greater number of days per year.

Modern farm tractors may have eight-wheel drive unit, caterpillar tracks, or articulated or non-articulated tracks, electrical or computer controls and are capable of multitude of different functions. Many modern farm tractors are fitted with GPS devices, auto-steer systems and other automated features. Modernized tractors may also have cabs accessorized with heated seats, automatic temperature controls, and dashboard computers.

Tractors offer a lot of use and convenience for many people. Tractors are also usually associated with farm machines and general farm use. However, there is a common misconception that they can only be found on farms. In addition to pulling implements like plows and cultivators a tractor may be used for bush-cleaning, ditch filling and land-leveling. Small tractors from one to ten horse power with single or twin cylinder petrol engines may be used for garden and orchard work.



Tractors are the workhorses of modern agriculture. These powerful and iconic machines, thanks to their legendary versatility, play many roles on today's farms. Let’s take a look at some of the main components of today's tractors.

The engine is the heart and soul of any tractor. When they were first invented, tractors used steam engines, which were notoriously unreliable, not to mention dangerous. Since the 20th century, however, tractors have used internal combustion engines that run on a variety of fuels, from kerosene to ethanol and gasoline. Most modern tractors today run on diesel and biodiesel. These powerful engines typically range in size from 18 to 575 horsepower, giving them all of the incredible power they need to tackle any job on today's farms.

Tractor service in the agriculture industry has increased dramatically over the past century thanks to their legendary ruggedness and durability. Because of their simple yet hardy design, many older tractors that feature manual transmissions are still in use. Unfortunately, these older transmissions are typically unsynchronized, meaning the tractor must be stopped before shifting gears, which can be very inconvenient. Modern tractors on the other hand use synchronized or continuously variable transmissions (CVT), which not only allows for better fuel efficiency but also allows the CVT to shift through an unlimited number of effective gear ratios.

Today's tractors don't always follow the classic design, with two large rear wheels and two smaller front wheels. Over time, different configurations have been developed to suit the environment in which they are used. For example, in locations with wet or heavy soils, tractors typically use tracks (such as those found on a "Caterpillar" or tank) because of their superior traction. Other modern tractors feature four wheel drive, either with the classic configuration (two large, two small) or with four large wheels.

Tractor engines put out an enormous amount of power, but in order to be useful that power must be harnessed. That's where tractor hitches come in. They take the form of draw bars, fixed mounts or three-point hitches and quick hitches that allow power to be transferred from the engine to implements that are typically pulled behind or beside the tractor, and may include attachments such as plows, seeders, tillers, mowers and many others.



1. Maintenance Activities

Good maintenance practices are essential for efficient operation of all types of farm machinery. Day-to-day maintenance and repair activities keep farm machinery and vehicles safe and reliable.

Maintenance involves fixing any sort of mechanical or electrical device should it become out of order or broken

Generally speaking, there are two types of maintenance in use: Preventive maintenance, where equipment is maintained before break down occurs. Preventive maintenance is effective in preventing age related failures of the equipment. Corrective maintenance, where equipment is maintained after break down. This maintenance is often most expensive because worn equipment can damage other parts and cause multiple damage.

There are four strategies to achieve maximum farm machinery life. These strategies are: machinery maintenance, oil analysis, machinery storage, engine tune-ups.

Maintenance activities include lubrication, oil and filter changes, battery replacement, and repairs including light metal machining. Lubrication is needed because of friction It increases engine life span, aids fuel efficiency and helps you get maximum performance from your vehicle. Lubricants are available in three forms: fluid oils, semisolids and solids.

Oil Analysis. A detailed look at a sample of engine, transmission or hydraulic oil is a valuable preventative maintenance tool. In many cases, it enables identification of a potential problem before a major repair is necessary and downtime during critical operations can be avoided. Oil analysis is a means of monitoring wear and oil contamination.

Machinery storage. Farmers must have a “good home” for the machinery when it is not working in the field. The first thing is to make sure that the machine is in good repair before you put it away. It must be kept clean, dry and lubricated. Equipment stored inside has a significantly higher trade-in value compared to the same equipment stored outside. Parts such as belts, tires and hoses deteriorate rapidly when unprotected. Machines, including tractors, combines, planters, drills should be kept inside.

Engine Tune-Ups. Diesel and gas engines require periodic tune-ups. Engines and hydraulic systems should be thoroughly warmed up periodically during periods of non-usage. A tune-up may include changing air and fuel filters, cleaning and adjusting injector nozzles, and adjusting engine timing.

2. Machinery Safety

It is important to be safety conscious when dealing with any job that requires the use of machinery.

To avoid any type of machinery-related injury strict safety practices must be employed.

-Never operate machinery under the influence of drugs or alcohol. The operator not only puts himself in danger but also anyone who may be working with them or in the general area.

- Protective clothing should be worn during the operation of farm machinery. Never wear baggy or loose fitting shirts or pants.


2.1 Machinery Repair

- All machinery should be maintained regularly. When repairs are done, the machine should be fixed according to manufacturers specifications.

- Brakes, hitches, safety chains, springs and shackles, should be inspected regularly for wear, broken or missing parts and cracks in the welds.

- Whenever preparing to work on a piece of equipment, wheels need to be blocked to prevent movement and any jacks used should be stable and in good condition.


Date: 2016-01-14; view: 2788

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