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History Leif Ericson to 1865 The First Settlers in North America

  1. The emancipation of the serfs.
  2. The difference between the liquidation of serfdom in Ukraine and Russia.
  3. The attitude of the peasants to the reform
  4. Other reforms.
  5. The significance of the reforms.
  6. The similarities and differences between the reforms introduced by the Australian and Russian Empires in 1848 and in 1861.
  7. The policy of the tsarist government towards Ukraine. Petr Valuev Ukaz. The Ems Ukaz.
  8. Hromady and their role in the development of the movement for the liberation of Ukraine. M.Dragomarov.



to expend
areas under crops
to invade/invaders
to break into  
to fight loyally
the overthrow of autocratic rule
to abolish
death penalty
trade route
revolt, uprising


Tasks for individual work

1. What was the Crimean War of 1854 for Ukraine.

2. What are the factors that influenced the abolition of serfdom.

3. What was the attitude of Landlords towards the land reform?

4. What was peasant’s attitude towards the reform.


Compulsory literature:


1. Orest Subtelny History of Ukraine. – New York 1990p. 256-258

2. www.infoukes.com

3. www.ozemail.com

4. www.uahistory.com

5. www.brama.com


Seminar 7. Ukraine in the period of the Ukrainian state revival


  1. Ukraine in 1917. The creation of the Central Rada.
  2. October revolt in Kiev and the proclamation of UNR.
  3. The 1st Congress of Soviets in Kiev and Kharkiv. The split of Ukraine.
  4. The Best-Litovsk Treaty. The occupation of Ukraine.
  5. The revolution on the 29th of April. Hetman Skoropadsky. S.Petlura.
  6. The dramatic denouement. The lessons of history.



emancipation of the
to be in decline
to fall behind
a wave of unrest
bourgeois society


History Leif Ericson to 1865 The First Settlers in North America


The USA was originally peopled by Indians and was opened to European colonisation by the first voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492, and the later discoveries of John Cabot in 1497-98 and Cartier in 1534-41. The Indians had probably arrived 10,000 to 30,000 years before, coming from Asia to North America by way of the Bering Strait. By the time the white man appeared the Indians had spread and occupied all parts of the New World.

It is interesting to note that some Europeans knew about the New World long before Columbus made his first voyage. The Vikings from Scandinavia visited the continent of NA almost a thousand years ago in the 11th century. Leif Ericson, a Viking raider discovered NA in 1000, calling the territory Vinland. However, the Scandinavians were seamen and raiders and they did not try to settle on the land permanently. The discovery was not widely known in Europe. Therefore the territory was not really discovered until Christopher Columbus arrived in 1492. The need for increased trade and an error in navigation led to another European encounter with America. Columbus sailed west to the Far East, but he did not reach Asia. Instead he landed on one of the Bahama Islands in the Caribbean Sea and explored most of the Caribbian area.

The American continent was named after Amerigo Vespucci, a nobleman from Florence who helped to organise Columbus’s second voyage in 1493. Vespucci made 4 voyages to the New World himself. As early as 1532 most Europeans were calling the new continent “America”. After Columbus there were many trips of exploration by the Spanish, the Dutch, the French and the English. The Europeans were initially drawn to the New World in search of wealth, each European sovereign hastened to claim as much territory as possible in the New World. Another reason was connected with the zeal of Spanish priest to convert the indigenous inhabitants of the Americas to Christianity, and the need of European religious and political dissenters for refuge from prosecution in their homeland, and the thirst of adventure of some individuals.

The first permanent white Spanish settlements were established in St. Augustine, Florida (1565); Santa Fe, New Mexico (1609), San Diego, California (1769). The first permanent English colony Jamestown was founded in 1607 in Virginia. The settlement was financed by a London company which expected to make a profit from the settlement. It never did. Of the first 105 colonists, 73 died of hunger and disease within seven months of their arrival. But the colony survived and eventually grew and became wealthy. The Virginians discovered a way to earn money by growing tobacco, which they began shipping to England in1614.

In New England, the northeastern region of what is now the US, several settlements were established by English Puritans (the Pilgrims, the Mayflower, Plymouth, Massachusetts, 1620; 1630, Boston; 1635 nearby Connecticut). New England also established another American tradition – a strain of often-intolerant moralism. The Puritans believed that governments should enforce God’s morality.

One Puritan who disagreed with the decisions of the community, Roger Williams, protested that the state should not interfere with the religion. Forced to leave Massachusetts in 1635 he set up the neighbouring Rhode Island colony, that guaranteed religious freedom and the separation of church and state. The colonies of Maryland, settled in 1634 as a refuge for Roman Catholics, and Pennsylvania, founded in 1681 by the Quaker leader William Penn, were also characterized by religious toleration, which attracted further groups of settlers.

German farmers settled in Pennsylvania, Swedes (Delaware), African slaves (Virginia, 1619), the Dutch purchased Manhattan Island from Native American chiefs and built the town New Amsterdam, in 1664 the settlement was captured by the English and renamed New York.

Date: 2015-01-02; view: 882

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