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History of trolleybuses

(1919-1999)

Iris Murdoch was one of the most complex writers in modern English fiction. She was born in 1919 in Dublin. The main theme of her novels is the fate of men and women in modern society, their belief and disbelief. Her heroes are lonely and suffering people. In all her novels we find love as great and mysterious force. It is the inner world of the character that interests Iris Murdoch. Her books arise out of the varied experiences of life.

Iris Murdoch lectured in philosophy from 1948 to 1963 at the Oxford University in England. It influenced her literary career and she became an author of many books on philosophy and philosophical novels. She began her literary career with a critical work 'Sartre, Romantic Rationalist' (1953). Her first novel 'Under the Net' appeared in 1954 and since then she published a book almost every year.

Her characters face difficult moral choices in their search for love and freedom and are often involved in complex networks of love affairs. Some of Murdoch's novels

expose the dangers of abstract system of behavior that cut out people off from spontaneous, loving relationships. 'Under the Net' (1954) and 'Fairly Honorable Defeat' (1970) are examples of it. 'The Bells' (1958) describes the relationships among the members of a religious commune. In 'A Several Head' (1961) Murdoch portrays three couples whose unfaithful sexual conduct illustrates their shallow, self-centered philosophies.

Existentialistic characteristic features of loneliness, anxiety and fear prevail in 'The Unicorn' (1963) and 'The Italian Girl' (1964). The ninth novel, 'The Red and the Green' (1965) is apparently a progressive point in Murdoch's evolution to realism, but in her next novel, 'The Time of Angels' (1966), the writer's realistic vision is completely suppressed by the old pessimistic approach to the individual and society. The line of evolution of Iris Murdoch's creative method was, thus, tremendously unstable and contradictory. By the time she began writing, she was a convinced defender of the existentialist trend in philosophy.

Iris Murdoch was always looking for the mysterious in ordinary life. 'The Sandcastle' and 'The Bell' demonstrate her ability to make usual and even banal situations exciting. A lot of other novels, except 'The Red and the Green', brim with unaccountable horrors, senseless crimes and love affairs. The characters are hopelessly engulfed in the world of evil, their alienation is complete, and the author's dependence on traditional schemes of existentialism is obvious. The picture of the Irish uprising in 1916 in the 'The Red and the Green' is written with a certain sense of realism. Her other novels include an 'Accidental Man' (1971), 'The Black Prince' (1973)'' , ' The Sea, The Sea' (1978), 'The Good Apprentice' (1986), and 'The Book and the Brotherhood' (1988) . Iris Murdoch tried to write in the spirit of realistic traditions in English literature. But her books are characterized by features of Romantic trend.



Summary

Theme 10: New tendencies in the development of English literature in the second half of the 20th century. The 2nd World War in English literature. The protest against establishment, the threat of the new nuclear war, anti-colonial movement. Philosophy of existentialism in the works by Iris Murdock.

Questions

1. What do you know about the literary movement the followers of which were called 'The Angry Young Men'?

2. What is 'the anti-colonial trend' in English literature?

3. What is a 'working-class novel'?

4. What is the difference between 'entertainments' and 'serious novels', written by Graham Greene?

5. What novels were written by Charles Percy Snow?

6. What problems are James Aldridge's works devoted to?

7. What do you think, why Iris Murdoch's novels are considered to be philosophical?

8. What do you know about Iris Murdoch's philosophy of existentialism?

Literature

4. Arnold I., Diakonova N. Three Centuries of English Prose. — Leningrad: Prosvesheniye, 1967.

6. Baranovsky L. S., Kozikis D.D. Panorama of Great Britain. 2. Historical Outline. -Minsk:Vysheishaya Shkola Publishers,1990,pp.45-180.

9. Chase E.M., Jewett A., Evans W. Values in Literature. — Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1965.

10. Diakonova N. Three centuries of English Poetry. — Leningrad : Prosvesh., 1967.

11. Kearns George. English and Western Literature. -The USA: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1987.

12. Volosova T.D., Hecker M.I., Rogoff V.V. English Literature. — Moskow: Prosvesheniye, 1974.

13. Hecker M., Volosova T.D., Doroshevich A. English Literature. — Moskow: Prosvesheniye, 1975.

15. Miles Dudley and Pooley Robert C. Literature and Life in England. New York: Scott, Foresman and company, 1948.

16. Ranson House Webster's College Dictionary. — New York, 1990.

17. Guterman N.G. An Anthology of Modern English and American Verse. — Leningrad, 1963.

21. Pfordresher John, Veidemanis Gladys V., McDonnel Helen. England in Literature.- Glenview, Illinois: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1988.

24. World Book Encyclopedia. – Chicago, London, Sydney, Toronto: A Scott Fetzer Company, 1995, 26 volumes.

Key Words and Expressions

folklore
to compose songs
sea monster
water witch
to devour
a magic weapon
a huge sword
to sacrifice one's life
glorious youth
to become master of their own destiny
to symbolize
crucial
feast
arrogance
violence
compassion
sinful
to subdue one's passions
plunder
religious poetry
conquer
to praise
pilgrimage
prologue
from all ranks of
shrine
to sum up
serfs
to show a true picture
broad-minded
crafty
curiously
flashy
conference
present wit
to make an important contribution
to invent
sonnet
to be accused
high treason
manage to get free
to be undermined
cruel torture
to bring to perfection
sonnet cycle
Renaissance ideology
to depict characters
to outshine
a leading shareholder
the principal playwright
immortal
dramatic technique
the source of the plot
chronicle
to perish
to remain faithful to one's ideas
to rule the universe autocratically
serpent
to persuade
to banish
a life of toil and woe
tyranny
to go bankrupt
literary career
satire in verse
fiction
to be picked by
inexperienced youth
shipwreck
despondency
to have confidence in
to be supported
anti-religious satire
the spirit of the time
miserable conditions
sensation
famine
to depopulate
unburied corpses
disappointment
to undermine one's health
fictitious travels
under the cloak of
imaginary voyages
convicting
believable
censorship
to expose social evils
genius
to ridicule
to be ańcussed of
corrupting influence
gossip
pillar
most-quoted
harsh
widespread
the Chartist movement
unbearable conditions
vices of the society
to reconcile
accusation
street sketches
exaggeration of facts
to unmask
hypocrisy
to draw cartoons
to outlive
prelude
reconciliation
realistic approach
pettifogging
virtuous person
hypocritical world
to hinder the development
spiritual degradation
the realm of beauty
cult of beauty
to be preoccupied
to be accused of immorality
innocent man
immoral life
urban manufacturing centers
brevity
social legislation
appreciate
outer form
at all costs
irregular meters
sharply contradicting characters
sarcasm
to expose the vices
human psychology
to breathe life into
the physiological aspects of a person's speech
to bet with
to teach somebody manners
to be introduced into society
social tracts
a forward-looking habit
evil aims
economic breach
to keep up traditions
stagnation of thought
to reveal a similar philosophy
to deal with burning problems of life
to express one's indignation
artistic approach
social and political order
to regard as one's literary teacher
complicated plot
keen observer of life and individuals
mature period
outstanding incidents
to affect
to bring misfortune to
to come in touch with
logically developed
a new generation of realist writers
mythological images
a crime against life and beauty
an extremely gloomy novel
to face an alternative
to prosper at somebody's expense
to be doomed to poverty
the central conflict
quite evident
the democratic layers of the society
to penetrate into
to comprehend
spiritual crisis
to reveal the truth of life
to convince a reader
to remain neutral
to deserve respect
to expose
to wage war
to convey an idea
to take sides
to unravel a crime
posthumously
violence
compilation
perception
a free-lance writer
a reviewer
a versatile talent
an essayist
religious conviction
a screenwriter

Elmira D. Muratova. Uzbek State University of World Languages. Tashkent 2006. Reviewers: Svetlana Glazyrina, Ph.D., Head, Chair of Stylystics. External Reviewer: Vasilya Rakhimova, Ph.D., Head, Chair of Foreign Languages, Institute for Oriental Studies.

 

History of trolleybuses

April 29, 1882 – Werner von Siemens presents the first trolleybus in the world in Berlin (“Elektromote”)

Werner von Siemens rebuilt an open hunting carriage so that it could move without horses or rails. The vehicle, which was to make history under the name of “Elektromote,” was provided with electric power via an overhead line. A small eight-wheel contact vehicle moving along this bipolar cable served as a current collector. It had to be separately weighted in order not to topple off the overhead line. The contact vehicle was connected with the carriage by two flexible copper cables. These ran down a wooden mast mounted on the carriage to the two main current engines beneath the driver’s seat, which drove the back wheels via steel chains; a functioning differential had not yet been developed.

However, the “Elektromote” never progressed beyond the initial stages, in spite of the fact that in October 1881 Werner von Siemens obtained permission from the city of Berlin to build a test route for the vehicle – although with the injunction that he “must kindly ensure the necessary precautions are taken to prevent of any accidents as a result of the operation of the steam engine (for generating electricity) and the road vehicle.”

 

Vehicle-

electric power-

wheel-ę

bipolar cable-

current-

copper-

obtain-

 


Date: 2015-01-02; view: 1189


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