Now that consumers have power, what will they do with it?
Fifty years ago, when products were more individual, manufacturers had the upper hand. They could charge a lot for successful items because they were made in small quantities. As competition increased and became more global, there were more products to choose from and they increasingly resembled each other. This gave retailers the advantage because they could pick and choose which products to sell, and demand the best prices from suppliers. Now the consumer is taking command.
The arrival of the Internet is one of the things responsible for the big shift in power. The web makes it easy for people to discover who offers the best deal. This could still be a retailer, but it could also be a manufacturer selling directly to consumers, or a trader on eBay.
The group to watch closely is the younger generation. 18- to 34-year olds see the Internet as one of their most important sources of information and entertainment. For this age group, the Internet will remain the dominant medium in their lives, as it will be for the following generation. This does not mean they will reject the traditional retail environment entirely. Shops will be a such part of their scene as they have been for their parents or grandparents. But some shops may be used in different ways. One indication is the growth of brand showrooms, such as the Apple and Sony stores. Their main role is to demonstrate a range of the company’s products, with knowledgeable and enthusiastic staff on hand who are under no pressure to clinch a sale. Where people actually buy the product in the need becomes of secondary importance.
As media become increasingly interactive, consumers will be able to exercise more choice. Getting advertising will be optional – so it will need to be good, useful and relevant to their lives. But traditional mass-media advertising will continue to have a role, at least for the foreseeable future.
Read the article and choose the correct answer
1. The writer suggests that in the past
A. manufacturers were more powerful than customers.
B. manufacturers were less powerful than customers.
C. retailers were less powerful than customers.
2. The writer says that some people use the Internet to
A. get information about companies
B. compare rewires
C. compare prices
3. The writer thinks that the younger generation are important because
A. they start their own companies.
B. they are familiar with the technology
C. they have more money
4. The writer thinks that in the future shops might be used
A. to give product information to suppliers
B. to show customers a range of products
C. to sell more products directly to the customer
5. In the near future traditional advertising
A. will no longer be used
B. will become cheaper
C. will still be used
Unit 2. FINDING A JOB
Complete the text with the following words and phrases.
Esther Garcia graduated from university with a degree in telecommunications. But finding her first job was very hard. She searched all the 1_____________in the newspapers and on the Internet. She made lots of 2____________________to different companies. She also sent her 3_______________to all the big -telecommunications companies. But most companies didn't even invite her for 4__________________. It seemed that they only wanted to 5_______________people with job experience. After several months, a finance company in Madrid 6__________________Esther a place on a three-month graduate trainee scheme. At the end of the three months, Esther was the only person out of the ten trainees to be 7_______________for a permanent job. Of course, Esther was very happy to 8_______________________.
Preparing a CV
· Read tips from a careers adviser, explaining how to prepare a CV for a UK job.
If you apply for a job in the UK, it may be better to write your CV in the way that UK employers expect. For example, keep it short - don't write more than two pages.
Make sure that you put your personal details and qualifications at the top - where you studied and your exam results. Don't write your date of birth and don't say if you are married or not.
When you describe your work experience, it's essential to say what you learnt from your previous jobs. Say what you contributed to the job, and what skills you demonstrated.
It's a good idea to write something about yourself and any interests or hobbies that you have. And don't forget to say which foreign languages you can speak.
Finally, remember to give the contact details of two references - most British employers will contact them to find out more about you.
· Which of the following points does he advise? Tick the points that are correct, and change the points that are not correct.
- Write more than two pages.
- Start with details of previous jobs.
- Leave out your date of birth.
- Don't say anything about hobbies and interests.
- Give the contact details of two references at the end.
· Work with a partner. Practice explaining one of the following to a British person.
v Where to look for a job in your country.
v How to prepare a CV for a job in your country.
v What to wear for an interview.
· Fixed procedures or flexibility?
When you are part of an organisation or a team, do you think it is best to have a fixed way of doing things that is made clear to everyone? Or is it better to be flexible? In some cultures, people like to have specific rules and procedures to follow. In other cultures, people prefer to have flexible ways of working. They prefer to deal with each situation separately in the way they think is best.