Ex. 2. Fill in the correct preposition, then choose any item and make up a sentence.
To be involved ….. smth; to be interested ….. smth; to be exposed …. smth; to be useful …. doing smth; to be helpful …. doing smth; to be extracted ….. smth; to comment …. smth; to refer …. smth; to be listed …. ; to be suitable ….; to be prone …. smth.
Ex. 3. Look up the word bias in an English-English dictionary. Translate the sentences below and learn some meanings of the word.
The statistics have a bias due to inaccuracy in data.
Abraham Lincoln freed America from slavery but he didn’t free it from racial biases.
Any form of discrimination based on gender can be identified as a gender bias.
Avoiding or at least eliminating personal bias in research is very important.
As Robert J. MacCoun states, in 1990-s the psychological research literature in America was criticized for being biased toward a Western individualist world view.
Ex. 4. Study the examples of some book reviews. Give the reasons why you think the books might be worth reading.
What aspects of book reviewing does each of examples cover? Make up appropriate questions. Complete the chart.
the intended audience
e.g. Who is the intended audience?
the author's style, whether it is formal or informal
the quality of the writing style by using some of the following standards: coherence, clarity, originality, forcefulness, conciseness, correct use of technical words, fluidity, fullness of development, etc.
illustrations, charts, etc. used and how these are to be evaluated
the thesis of the author or some general points which emerge from the book
how useful the book might be to a specialist in the field, a student or a common reader
Ex. 5. How do you read scientific books? What factors are important to you to enjoy reading? Read some students’ opinions. Discuss yours with your partner.
Make a review of a research paper you would like to recommend to your fellow students. Use the questions below as a plan for your review.
Who was the paper written by?
What is the title of the paper?
What are the year and the place of its publication?
What is the target audience of the research?
What is the overall purpose of the research?
6.How does the research fit into the context of its field? Is it, for example, attempting to settle a controversy/ show the validity of a new technique/ open up a new field of inquiry?
Do the title, abstract, key words, introduction and conclusions accurately and consistently reflect the major point(s) of the paper?
8.Do you agree with the author's rationale for studying the question in this way?
Are the methods appropriate/ current/ described clearly enough so that the work could be repeated by someone else?
10.Were the measurements appropriate for the questions the researcher was approaching?
Are all tables and figures clearly labeled? well planned? too complex? necessary?
Point out any errors in technique, fact, calculation, interpretation, or style.
13.Do you agree with the conclusions drawn from the data?
14.Are these conclusions over-generalized or appropriately careful?
15.Give your comments on the list of references. Is it complete/ accurate? Does it include the latest materials on the topic of research?
What is the major contribution of the paper?
What are its major strengths and weaknesses?
What portions of the paper should be expanded? condensed? combined? deleted? Please, be specific!
Is the writing concise, easy to follow, interesting?
Writing Abstracts and Annotations
Ex. 1. Look at these sayings. What do they mean? Which of the ideas do you agree with?
Not that the story need be long, but it will take a long while to make it short.
Henry David Thoreau, American author (1817 – 1862)
Words are a lens to focus one’s mind.
Ayn Rand, Russian-American novelist (1905 – 1982)
I can’t write five words but that I change seven.
Dorothy Parker, American poet and writer (1893 – 1967)