— What is a research paper? -The research paper is a typewritten paper in which you present your views and research findings on a chosen topic.
— Complete the ideas:
Students usually work on the……‘term paper’ or the ‘library paper’ or the ‘diploma paper’
Postgraduates work on…… their dissertations
- What is the task of any research work? - the task is essentially the same: to read on a particular topic, evaluate information about it, and report your findings in a paper.
— The research paper can not be written according to a random formula, can it? – no, it can’t.
- What does the specific format of writing a research work govern? - The format governs the entire paper from the placing of the title to the width of the margins, and to the notations used in acknowledging material drawn from other sources.
— What are the key issues in interpreting the facts? - discovering a pattern and developing a viewpoint are key issues in interpretation.
— What are the components of a technical report? - components: introduction, body, and conclusion.
— What information must be included in the introduction? Body? Conclusion? – introduction: I problem
Body: II Background Information, III Designing and Procedures of Important Experiments, IV Results of Experiments, V Discussion
Conclusion: VI Conclusions, Summary, Implications and Recommendations
- What are abstracts or summaries? In what way must they be written? - An abstract or a summary highlights the most important ideas in the proposal, manual or dissertation. Abstracts or summaries are very helpful to people outside your scientific field so they need to be worded carefully in general, not scientific terms.
· Do you have any experience of making reports in public? Speak about at least three things that were particularly difficult for you when making oral presentations.
· Remember any famous speakers / your lecturers who appeal / don’t appeal to you. Analyze their presentation style. What can make a powerful public speech? What is important when making a public speech?
Read the text and make a list of the suggestions given to make your oral presentation perfect:
More and more young people nowadays are involved in research and have to participate in the work of different scientific conferences. At some point in your scientific life you will be asked to make a presentation and you will be expected to deliver your presentation so that others can understand you. Giving an oral presentation strikes fear into the souls of many English as the second language students, but it needn’t. Following some simple suggestions should help you overcome much of your fear of giving an oral presentation.
First, be sure to prepare for the talk thoroughly. This means gathering your facts and organizing them logically. You can also prepare for your talk by thinking about the characteristics of the audience. Are they likely to agree with your conclusions or are they likely to be hostile? If you think that the audience might be hostile, it may be necessary to prepare answers to questions that might be raised during the presentation.
You will find that audiences generally love handouts. If at all possible, prepare handouts that illustrate some important concept in your presentation. You will find that handouts, like graphs, can make difficult points easier to understand.
The organization of the total presentation includes more than just the organization of the report. It also includes the physical preparation for the presentation: finishing the speech, designing the visual aids, checking out the room where you will speak (if possible), and rehearsing the presentation until it satisfies you.
In putting the finishing touches on the speech, you need to remember the three elements for gaining and keeping the audience s attention: 1) tell the audience what you intend to say (the introduction); 2) support, explain and expand on the topic of the presentation (the body); 3) sum up your presentation (the conclusion).
It is necessary to capture the audience’s attention at the beginning of your talk. A powerful opening gives the presentation force and momentum which will help to ensure audience interest. Because the conclusion is the last thing the audience hears it‘s necessary to make it as forceful and convincing as possible.
Once you have delivered your talk, you must ask your audience for questions. Remain calm and don t think that others are attacking your presentation. If you are confident and at ease, you will see that people will respond to you pleasantly. If you become angry or defensive, you will lose your audience.