Alfred Nobel, the famous Swedish chemist, was born in a family where research and experimentation were almost second nature. His father tested the theories of explosives in a laboratory setup in their house. He was out of work, down and out, and he failed to apply his inventive spirit to establishing a prosperous endeavor.
Alfred Nobel acquired his father's knowledge of and enthusiasm for chemistry. Aside from developing dynamite commercially, Alfred claimed 355 patents including nitrocellulose and substitutes for leather and rubber, developed new methods for the production of synthetic silk. Alfred Nobel was a dedicated scientist who became very rich applying his knowledge of chemistry. He founded the Nobel prize, just two weeks before his death, because he preferred not to be remembered as an inventor of a potentially deadly material — dynamite. So he left some of his money to reward individuals who made substantial and valuable contribution to certain areas of science, and to the good of humanity. The Nobel prizes are awarded annually in six different fields: physics, chemistry, physiology, medicine, literature, economics (which was added later), and the cause of world peace. Nobel had set up a fund of over nine million dollars and from its interest every year on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel death, prizes of about $40,000 are awarded for important inventions and discoveries.
1. What is the best title for the passage?
a. Alfred Nobel's heritage.
b. The history of great inventions.
c. Awards presented to the winners.
d. Important contributions to chemistry.
2. It can be inferred from the passage that Alfred Nobel later viewed his invention of dynamite
a. as the most valuable achievement
b. with much concern for its negative effects on humanity
c. as his father's contribution to chemistry
d. as a natural result of studying explosives
3. According to the passage, why was Nobel prize established?
a. to save money
b. to recognize worthwhile contributions to science
c. to unite scientists
d. to lay emphasis on individual research
4. It can be inferred from the passage that originally the prizes were awarded in how many fields?
· Imagine you are a professor at a university. You teach young scientists the basics of doing a research work. Prepare a lecture on “Essentials of scientific reading”.
· Imagine you are a literary critic. Write an appraisal of a book. Use the sample review.
'The Collector' is a novel written by John Fowles. It was first published in 1963, and it is a sort of horror story. It is one of the most sinister books I have ever read. It holds your attention from the start and becomes more shocking as it progresses. 'The Collector' is a good title. The 'hero', Ferdinand Clegg, collects butterflies, but he adds to his collection the girl of his dreams, Miranda, who is an art student. We learn enough about his background, an orphan brought up by his aunt and uncle, to have some understanding of his behaviour. He is a very lonely character and painfully shy, especially with women. We see him following Miranda from a distance, fascinated by her every move. There is a turning point when he wins some money, and his plans become a reality. He buys a remote country cottage, captures Miranda and keeps her there just to look at and admire. All he wants of her is to take her photograph. She is his latest and most precious 'butterfly'. One of the most interesting aspects of the story is the portrayal of Miranda, as she tries to handle the bizarre situation she finds herself in. Her behaviour goes to extremes -from trying to understand Ferdinand and be his friend to violence and trying to escape. In the end she falls ill and dies, while he does nothing to help. The reader feels all Miranda's hopes and fears until the final dreadful outcome. This is a book which, once you have started, is impossible to put down.
Ø Divide the review into paragraphs. What is the purpose of each paragraph?
Ø Choose the words and expressions which you think are useful to describe a
Ø Study the structure of a book review and the expressions that might help. Use them while writing your own review. Organize your paragraphs like this.
Paragraph 1 Factual information about the book.
Paragraph 2 An introduction to the setting and the characters. A description of the plot. (This might need two paragraphs.)
Paragraph 3 Your reactions, and the reasons why you liked it.
Paragraph 4 A conclusion.
The following expressions might help:
… tells the story of …
…based on real life / the author's experience
As the story unfolds, we see…
The story takes place in the 1950's. The story is set in Texas at the beginning of the century.