Part B. Choose which of the four underlined words or phrases in each sentence is grammatically incorrect.
16.) The Impressionists like Monet and Manet knew to use color in order to create an image of reality rather than reality itself.
17.) During Jackson's administration, those who did not approve of permit common people in the White house were shocked by the president's insistance that they be invited into the mansion.
18.) The Amish people, descended from the Germans and Swiss, would rather using horses than machines for transportation and farm work because they believe that a simple life keepts them closer to God.
19.) When the weather becomescolder we know that the air mass must originated in the Arctic rather than over the Gulf of Mexico.
20.) Please don't parking in those spaces that have signs reserving them forthe handicapped.
21.) Many people have stopped to smokebecause they are afraid that it may be harmful to their health.
22.) Sheepmust have mate in fall since the young are born in early spring every year.
23.) It is said that the American flag has five-pointed stars because Betsy Ross told General Washington she would rather that he changing the six-pointed ones.
24.) When Columbus seen the New World, he thought that he had reached the East Indies by way of a Western route.
25.) As television images of the astronauts showed, even for trained professionals who are used to move about in a lessened gravitational field, there are still problems.
26.) Venomous snakes with modified teeth connected to poison glandsin which the venom is secreted and stored.
27.) The American buffalo must be reproduceitself again becauseit has been removed from the endangered species list.
28.) In today's competitive markets, even small businesses had better to advertiseon TV and radio in order to gain a share of the market.
29.) Representative democracy seems evolvesimultaneouslyduring the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in Britain, Europe, and the United States.
30.) Many birds will, in the normal course of their migrations, flyingmore than three thousand milesto reach their winter homes.
16.) "knew" should be "knew how"
17.) "permit" should be "permitting"
18.) "using" should be "use"
19.) "must originated" should be "must have originated"
20.) "don't parking" should be "don't park"
21.) "to smoke" should be "smoking"
22.) "must have mate" should be "must mate"
23.) "changing" should be "changed"
24.) "seen" should be "saw"
25.) "used to move" should be "used to moving"
26.) "with" should be "have"
27.) "reproduce" should be "reproducing"
28.) "to advertise" should be "advertise"
29.) "evolve" should be "to have evolved"
30.) "flying" should be "fly"
III.) Reading Comprehension (13 minutes)
(1) Although speech is generally accepted as the most advanced form of communication, there are many ways of communicating without using words. (2) In every known culture, signals, signs, symbols, and gestures are commonly utilized as instruments of communication. (3) There is a great deal of agreement among communication scientists as to what each of these methods is and how each differs from the others. (4) For instance, the basic function of any signal is to impinge upon the environment in such a way that it attracts attention, as, for example, the dots and dashes that can be applied in a telegraph circuit. (5) Coded to refer to speech, the potential for communication through these dots and dashes -- short and long intervals as the circuit is broken -- is very great. (6) Less adaptable to the codification of words, signs also contain agreed upon meaning; that is, they convey information in and of themselves. (7) Two examples are the hexagonal red sign that conveys the meaning of stop, and the red and white swirled pole outside a shop that communicates the meaning of barber.
(8) Symbols are more difficult to describe than either signals or signs because of their intricate relationship with the receiver's cultural perceptions. (9) In some cultures, applauding in a theater provides performers with an auditory symbol of approval. (10) In other cultures, if done in unison, applauding can be a symbol of the audience's discontnent with the performance. (11) Gestures such as waving and handshaking also communicate certain cultural messages.
(12) Although signals, signs, symbosl and gestures are very useful, they also have a major disadvantage in communication. (13) They usually do not allow ideas to be shared without the sender being directly adjacent to the receiver. (14) Without an exchange of ideas, interaction comes to a halt. (15) As a result, means of communication intended to be used across long distances and extended periods must be based upon speech. (16) To radio, television, and the telephone, one must add fax, paging systems, electronic mail, and the Internet, and no one doubts but that there are more means of communication on the horizon.
1.) Which of the following would be the best title for the passage?
A.) Signs and Signals B.) Gestures
C.) Communication D.) Speech
2.) What does the author say about speech?
A.) It is the only true form of communication B.) It is dependent upon the advances made by inventors
C.) It is necessary for communication to occur D.) It is the most advanced form of communication
3.) Which sentence in the first paragraph defines the function of a signal?
A.) Sentence 2. B.) Sentence 4.
B.) Sentence 6. D.) Sentence 7.
4.) The phrase "impinge upon" in sentence 4 is closest in meaning to
A.) intrude B.) improve
C.) vary D.) prohibit
5.) The word "it" in sentence 4 refers to
A.) function B.) signal
C.) environment D.) way
6.) The world "potential" in sentence 5 could best be replaced by
A.) range B.) advantage
C.) organization D.) possibility
7.) Look at the word "themselves" in sentence 6. Choose the word or phrase that "themselves" refers to in sentences 4, 5, 6, or 7.
A.) dots and dashes B.) codification of words
C.) signs D.) the red and white swirled pole
8.) The word ":intricate" in sentence 8 could best be replaced by which of the following?
A.) inefficient B.) complicated
C.) historical D.) uncertain
9.) Applauding was cited as an example of
A.) a signal B.) a sign
C.) a symbol D.) a gesture
10.) The following sentence can be added to the passage: "A loud smacking of the lips aftger a meal can be either a kinesthetic and auditory symbol of approval and appreciation, or simply a rude noise." Where would it best fit in the passage?
A.) Before sentence 7 B.) Before sentence 8
C.) Before sentence 11 D.) Before sentence 13
11.) Why were the telephone, radio, and TV invented?
A.) People wanted new forms of entertainment B.) People wanted to communicate across long distances
C.) People were unable to understand signs, symbols, and signals
D.) People believed that signs, signals, and symbols were obsolete
12.) Look at the word "communication" in sentence 12. Which word or phrase in sentences 12, 13, 14, and 15 is closest in meaning to "communication"?
A.) signals, signs, symbols, and gestures B.) ideas