7. Which of the things listed below can motivate you more: colleagues, interesting work, gifts for achieving targets, promotion, training, flexible hours, money, job security, hard-working boss, threat of redundancy.
Rank them in order of importance. What else would you add to this list?
8. What is the difference between ‘a reward’ and ‘an incentive’? Financial and non-financial incentives?
9. Which would motivate you more: a pay rise or a better job title? Why?
10. To what extent do you judge someone by their job title? Why might job titles cause problems among staff?
11. What motivation theories do you know? As a leader, how would you motivate your employees?
Read the text and be ready to do the task after it.
Managers perform various functions, but one of the most important and least understood aspects of their job is proper utilization of people. Research reveals that worker performance is closely related to motivation; thus keeping employee motivated is an essential component of good management. In a business context, motivation refers to the stimulus that directs the behavior of workers toward the company goals. In order to achieve company goals, managers must be aware of workers’ needs.
Recruiting good people is a difficult task. It is time-consuming and costly. But a well-chosen labor force will be more productive than a poorly-chosen one. Do a good job of selecting and recruiting employee and they will stay with you. People who work a territory for years build up goodwill for the company; they become well-acquainted with the customers’ needs and are able to give advice rooted in experience. Customers place a lot of confidence in such people. A poorly-selected labor force means a high staff turnover. There are two main reasons for having to recruit: expansion and replacement. But in any case you need to prepare a "man profile". Some of the points that might be included in the man profile are:
age range qualifications skills
experience single or married appearance
physical abilities personal characteristics foreign languages
These should be listed in terms of what is acceptable and what is preferable, as in Table 1.
There are many sources of recruitment. The following are among them: educational establishments, employee agencies, trade associations, job centers, advertising.
Task I. Prepare a man profile for 2-3 different professions or trades. Add the list of characteristics including at least 7-10 points. Don’t show the notes to your classmates. Let them guess what profession (trade) you are speaking about.
Read the text. Be ready to give your own examples of a trade or profession illustrating each category of the job specification.
An interesting feature of the labour markets is that many organizations do not specify the type of person they require instead they will give the details of a job in a job specification. The Department of Employment has given the following definitions of a job description and job specification:
Job description: a broad statement of the purpose, scope, duties and responsibilities of a particular job.
Job specification: a detailed statement of the physical and mental activities involved in the job. The specification is usually expressed in terms of behaviour: what the worker does, what knowledge he uses in doing it, the judgments he makes and the factors he takes into account when making them.
The great variety of job specifications which exists in business illustrates the range of specification in occupation. The five categories given below do not cover this wide range, but can become a guide to the role of manpower in organization.
1.Unskilled. Many jobs do not require any training or previous experience, for example manual labour or assembly work. These occupations are often highly repetitive and boring, as well as being poorly paid.
2.Mechanical or motor skills. There are some tasks in business which are performed by machines which require an operator. The more complicated the machine, then generally the more the operator must be.
3.Intelligence and knowledge. Occupations which require a high level of motor skill sometimes also demand a high level of intelligence and aptitude. But there are jobs which do not need mechanical skills but make demand on people’s knowledge.
4.Administrative or managerial skills. The ability to organize other people is a rare skill. It not only requires knowledge and understanding of the functions within an organization, but also the ability to motivate people. In addition managers must be able to organize nonhuman resources using techniques of forecasting, planning, coordinating and controlling. These are techniques which require judgment as well as knowledge.
5.Decision-making skills and initiative. Decision-making is an everyday occurrence for everyone. We decide what to eat, what to wear, where to go, and so on. Similarly, decisions are part of an organization’s everyday activities. The higher one goes up the hierarchy, the more necessary is the skill of decision. The risks which all organizations face mean that that organizations have to be run by people who have the ability to diagnose and assess the risk, and the capacity to decide on the correct strategy. Business is constantly changing and organizations require people with enterprise and initiative in order to survive.
Read the text and be ready to answer what theory you would follow as a manager. Give your reasons.
People in Organization
If there is any one characteristic of people which is universally valid and important, it is that they differ. To say that all persons are created equal is a statement of human rights under the law. It communicates nothing at all about human nature. As a matter of fact, people differ greatly in intelligence, aptitudes, physical strength, manual dexterity, knowledge, skill, interests, personality traits, motivation, and many other attributes which potentially influence behavior and productivity.
We are rational—but only to a point. We plan, set goals, think, reason, and live by creeds and values. But we also become frustrated and behave in ways that can be perceived as rational only by someone who understands all our deeply embedded, sometimes conflicting needs, aspirations, and perceptions. In many situations our motivation is unconscious so that not even we understand our own actions.
The fact that one’s environment strongly influences behavior is indisputable. A number of prominent psychologists have assumed that human freedom is an illusion. Human choices are thought to be totally determined. This, of course, is an assumption. Many people do not subjectively perceive themselves in this way. It is significant that behavior and expectations are strongly influenced by what a person believes to be true. Individuals feel responsible for their actions. Also, people consciously believe that their choices are real, regardless of any awareness of philosophical arguments to the contrary. Organizations cannot function optimally without these pragmatic assumptions.
There are, of course, innumerable statements which one might make about human nature, but they would not all have a direct influence on how people should be dealt within the work environment. The late Douglas McGregor did an excellent job of conceptualizing some of the assumptions about human nature which are relevant to organizational behavior. He labeled these, Theory X, the classical or traditional view, and Theory Y, a progressive view upon which he believed a new model for human relations in organizations could be developed.
Theory X. This theory holds that the average person inherently dislikes work, is innately lazy, irresponsible, self-centered, and security oriented, and consequently is indifferent to the needs of the organization. Because of these characteristics, the average person must be threatened, coerced, and controlled. In fact, most people prefer to be directed and controlled. They seek security above all, prefer to avoid responsibility, and both want and need external control in the work situation. Because people are basically cunning and immature, management should experience little difficulty in using a highly directive and manipulative style of supervision.
Theory Y. Experience has shown that Theory X assumptions result in a great deal of difficulty for management although they remain popular with some managers. McGregor’s Theory Y makes the opposite assumptions. People do not inherently dislike work and are not inherently lazy. Rather they have learned to dislike work, to be lazy, and to be irresponsible because of the nature of their work and supervision. They have a high capacity for developing an intrinsic interest in their work, for committing themselves to organizational objectives, and for working productively with a minimum of external controls.
Two points should be made with reference to these theories. First, the Theory X characteristics are said to be inherent or innate. To be such, they would necessarily apply to everyone, which is obviously absurd. On the other hand, under Theory Y, people are said to have the potential or capacity for the responsible behavior and attitudes described. If anyone possesses these qualities, and a great many people do, then everyone has the potential for them. Second, McGregor speaks of assumptions about the average person, and one must ask, «Average on what dimensions?» Are we talking about intelligence? education? experience? Average is a statistical concept. The average person is nonexistent, hypothetical construct. When we make assumptions about the average person, at best we are referring to most people, and in doing so must recognize that there are exceptions.
Here is one more text about people in organization. Read it and say whether you can take the information seriously.
When might you need to give blood for a personality test? The answer to that question may puzzle you more than the question itself: when you apply for a job. What’s more, your blood group could seriously influence your career prospects. Some people believe your blood group hides no secrets. It reveals the “real you” – a person who gets things done, a good salesman, a creative person or a problem-solver – that is why you could be asked to state your blood group when completing a job application form. This growing trend was first used in Japan and now management consultant firms in other parts of the world have joined in. Someone, somewhere has spent some time working out statistics regarding who’s who in the blood group system. The owners of certain group tend to be particularly good or bad at certain tasks. In fact, one major Japanese firm is so well informed about blood groups that the company is quite specific about its needs: “We must have 30per cent of blood group A and 15 per cent of AB, 25 per cent of blood group 0, and 30 per cent of blood group B among echelons of our management personnel”. Apparently, if you belong to blood group 0 you get things done and sell the goods. Blood group A are thinkers, while blood group B are highly creative. And if you got problems, ask the Abs to solve them.
Read the text and make the list of the points that make people happy at work.
Happiness at work
Employees make difference to companies and they are gaining recognition for their contribution. More and more employees are realizing that there is a real correlation between happy staff and a strong bottom line. But what makes us happy at work?
According to the HR Consultants Chiumento’s ‘Happiness at work’ index, employees have interests that rank higher than a big pay cheque, which comes in at a lowly tenth place. Instead, it’s people first – feeling part of a friendly, supportive atmosphere, where you have a say in what happens, and where people take care of each other. At Google, for example, they take pride in the fact that employees enjoy a ‘fun workplace’.
Second in line on the ‘Happiness at work’ index comes enjoyable work, where employees derive satisfaction from their achievements. It also helps if you can relate to the values of the company where you work. According to a recent newspaper survey, Innocent, a young fast-growing fruit drinks company, attracts employees who see a future for themselves in a company with clear values. Innocent ‘innocently’ claims they want to ‘leave things a little better than we find them’. At Google, where they receive 100,000 job applications a month, their philosophy is to make money ‘without doing evil’. Employees are clearly keen to make the most of their opportunities, especially if they feel they are making a worldwide contribution to their company while helping to improve the world they live in.
Task II. Work in pairs. Think of advice you would give to a novice interviewee beside the listed below. Share your ideas with your groupmates.
· Make sure you know in advance exactly where the interview is to take place.
· Take a pen.
· Take your school and colledge certificates with you, and any testimonials you may have, and examples of your work.
· Show your best side – don’t stress your shortcomings, like how you hate getting up early in the morning.
· Give a clear answer to each question – avoid answering Yes and No.
· If you don’t know the answer to a question, don’t try to bluff your way out of it.
· Don’t be tempted to have a drink beforehand to give yourself courage.
Task III. Work in small groups. How would you feel inthe following situations during an interview for a job you really wanted to get? What exactly would you say or do in each situation?
1. You are still waiting for the interview to begin half an hour after your appointment.
2. Unexpectedly, you find that you’re going to be interviewed in a group with several other candidates.
3. You have to sit in an uncomfortable, low chair.
4. The interviewer hasn’t prepared for an interview: he/she doesn’t seem to have read your CV and application letter.
5. You take an instant dislike to the interviewer.
6. The interviewer never looks you straight in the eye.
7. You have a terrible headache. The room is very hot and stuffy and the windows are closed.
8. You are asked about your political and religious beliefs.
9. The interviewer receives a phone call which seems to be going on too long.
10. The interviewer talks too much and keeps interrupting you.
11. The interviewer keeps asking questions you can answer with Yes or No.
12. At the end of the interview you still do not have a clear picture of the nature of the job.
13. The interviewer doesn’t tell you when you may expect to hear his/her decision.
Read the text and dwell on each factor of ability and motivation. Prove their importance. Do you find these factors equally significant? Why, why not?