The _________________ is often calls "the body's first ___________________ of defence". It acts as armour, resisting many germs that might harm the more _________________ parts of the _______________. Any ___________________ in the skin, even a pin ____________, provides an opening for _______________ germs. Some ____________________ enter the body through the ____________________ and __________________ and other natural openings. These areas provide warmth and _________________ in which germs thrive. When the ___________________ of the nose and throat becomes irritated, we cough or _____________________, blowing out the unwanted substances.
Other body _________________ also provide a defence against ________________. Tears, for example, wash _______________ from the __________________. Tears also contain substances that fight bacteria. Acid in the _________________ kills many germs before they can reach other _________________ of the body.
Exersice 10.Choose the correct answer.
1) She died after a long _______________________.
disease failing illness sickness
2) The doctor had three _____________________ of nose-bleeding in the same day.
aspects cases examples illnesses
3) The teachers at the school went ______________ with flu one after another.
down off out under
4) Malaria is _______________ by the female mosquito.
broadcast sent transmitted transported
5) Mary is in bed with a ______________ attack of flu.
hard heavy severe large
6) My brother was ________________ ill yesterday.
broken caught fallen taken
7) Several _______________ cases of malaria have been reported.
cases doses occurrences types
8) He ______________ a rare disease when he was working in the hospital.
caught infected suffered took
9) My headaches are usually brought ___________ by worry.
in on by out
10) The doctor examined him carefully and _____________ influenza.
concluded decided diagnosed realised
11) Some diseases ______________ quickly from one person to another.
catch get about move spread
12) The local medical officer reported a serious ______________ of food poisoning.
event incident outbreak state
13) He had a very bad cold and couldn't stop _______________.
sneezing snoring spitting yawning
14) She was in terrible pain, so the nurse gave her a(n) ______________.
injection needle vaccine scratch
15) If you've got measles, your skin is covered in _____________.
blots dots rash stains
Exercise 11.Choose the right answer:
1. The ____ of his leg was so terrible that he would go mad.
2. Steve is permanently ____ as the result of a car accident.
3. The fracture itself wasnít much. The only ____ needed was the arm in sling for a few weeks.
4. The doctor examined Billís hand, painted the cats with ___, and gave him some opening medicine.
5. The nurse was going from patient to patient taking off old bandages and putting ___ the new ones.
6. Half an hour later Tom was in a hospital bed and the doctor was ___ his arm.
7. William was ___ in the accident. He was laid up for a month with a broken leg.
8. I saw an accident yesterday. Fortunately nobody was ____.
Exercise 12.Read the following passage from a health education booklet and answer questions 1-5.
Cuts. Bleeding can usually be stopped by applying pressure to the cut for 2 or 3 minutes. The cut then can be carefully inspected. If it has bled freely any germs will normally have been washed by the blood. Apply a plaster dressing firmly, bringing the edges of the cut together so that it knits quickly. Keep dry for 1 to 2 days. If the cut is deep and the edges cannot be pulled together with a dressing consult a doctor or the practice nurse. A tetanus injection may be needed.
Crazes. Dirt will often enter a graze caused by falling on a hard or rough surface. It must be cleaned out carefully with an antiseptic solution. After cleaning, leave the graze uncovered. Exposure to the air will caused a scab to form. This will gradually dry and fall off. It is not a good idea to apply a dressing. This may stick to the graze or make it soggy and infected.
Bruises. Bruises are very common in children. They normally get better in 7 to 10 days. Parents sometimes worry that a bone may be broken. Children's bones are rubbery and rarely break, but if in doubt consult the doctor. If a child gets up at once after a fall and moves about normally, it is unlikely that a bone has been fractured. But the child may be stiff the next day because of the bruising which has occurred. Serve bruising can be treated by rest for 24 to 48 hours. In the case of a badly bruised leg, the limb should be raised. Lying in bed is the easiest way to do this. A cold compress may ease a bad bruise if applied at once. This is made by soaking some material in water and applying it to the bruise.
Bruises on the head may cause anxiety. If the patient was not "knocked out" and can remember the accident it is unlikely that serious injury has resulted. But if the patient was knocked unconscious and cannot remember what happened, he or she should be taken to a hospital casualty department.
Insect bites. These are common in the summer. They look like spots about 5mm across. They are very itchy and usually appear on exposed parts, e.g. arms and legs. The itching can be relieved by calamine lotion.
Burns and scalds. Minor burns and scalds cause redness of the skin. Immediate treatment by pouring cold water over a burn is often helpful. If burns cause severe blistering or break the skin, the doctor should be consulted. Sunburn should, if possible, be prevented by avoiding long exposure and covering exposed areas adequately. It may be treated by calamine lotion and solute aspirin to relieve the pain.
1. The purpose of the booklet is:
a) to tell us what to do until a doctor arrives;
b) to explain what causes minor illnesses;
c) to show that it is unnecessary to call a doctor;
d) to help us to treat minor illnesses at home.
2. The one injury which we are told not to cover is:
a) a bruise;
c) a graze;
d) an insect bite.
3. When treating a minor cut, we are first told to:
a) clean out the injury;
b) press down on the injury;
c) wash the blood away;
d) close up the injury.
4. The injury which we are told how to avoid is:
b) insect bites;
5. Patients with badly bruised legs are advised to go to bed so that:
a) they can rest completely;
b) their injured leg can be lifted up;
c) they can soak their leg in water;
d) a cold compress can be applied.
Exercise 13.Complete the text below by filling each gap with one of the following verbs:
dressing setting giving taking saving fitting
sterilizing taking out transplanting taking off performing
Well, don't you think it's unfair? There they are upstairs, _________________ bones, __________________ skin grafts, __________________ pacemakers, _________________ organs, _________________ lives and exciting things like that. And here I am spending the whole of my day __________________ people's pulse, _________________ injections, ________________ bandages, ________________ stitches, _________________ wounds and __________________ bottles. And to think they earn four times as much money for all the fun they have!
Exercise 14.Where can you find these patients? Match the patients with the correct wards or departments.
1) Intensive Care Unit
2) Casualty and Emergency Department
3) Paediatric Ward
4) Maternity Unit
5) Orthopaedic Ward
6) Surgical Ward
7) Geriatric Ward
8) Ophthalmic Ward
9) Gynaecological Ward
a) Mary who has just had a baby
b) John who had fractured his leg
c) My grandmother who is suffering from pneumonia complications
d) Peter who will have his appendix removed
e) Betty's mother who is suffering from women's disease
f) My mother who will be operated on for an eye cataract
g) Samuel who is unconscious
h) Paul who has just been in car crash
i) Jack who has measles
Exercise 15.Give the name of the persons defined below.
1) a family doctor - g _ _ _ _ _ _ p _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ er;
2) someone who looks after sick people in hospital - _ _ _ s _;
3) sick person who has to stay in hospital - i _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _;
4) sick person who has to visit hospital regularly - o _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _;
5) someone who operates on sick people - _ _ _ _ _o _;
6) person badly injured in an accident - _ a _ _ _ _ _ _;
7) person who helps at the birth of a baby - m _ _ _ _ _ _;