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Write the possible answers. Use Present Perfect.

1. Why are you looking so happy?

2. Why are you looking so sad?

3. Why is your friend so angry?

4. Why is Ann crying?

5. Why are the students laughing?

( to get a letter from home; to pass the exam; to fail the exam; to lose one's bag; to hear a funny story; to get a ticket to the concert; to hear bad news; to win the first prize; to hear good news.)


Exercise 6

Choose the right verb.

1. A group of teenagers in the town (has / have) organized a scheme to help old people with their shopping.

2. A number of people (has / have) complained about the noise.

3. More than one house in our street (has/ have) been broken into recently.

4. One of my friends (has / have) just won two free plane tickets to New York.

5. The Philippines (has / have) signed the new human rights agreement.

6. We've just learnt that a couple of our club members (has/ have) been chosen for the national team.


Exercise 7

Insert since or for in the appropriate sentences.

Pattern: Where is Kate? Oh, she's been in London since 1999.

1. I've known him ... a long time.

2. We've been on holiday ... three weeks.

3. He's been a student ... four years.

4. She hasn't been to work ... July.

5. She has been ill ... a fortnight.

6. They have been divorced ... last year.

7. We have been very busy ... Christmas.

8. My grandmother has been a pensioner ...five years.

9. He has been away ... a month.


Exercise 8

Make these sentences negative and interrogative.

1. She will have cooked dinner by the time you come.

2. The teacher will have looked through all our exercise- books by the end of the week.

3. The film will already have started when we get there.

4. I shall have read the book by next Monday.

5. My parents will have gone to bed when we come back from the theatre.

6. The students will have passed their exams by July

7. We shall have finished our work by the time the bell rings.


Exercise 9

What will life be like in the year 2030?

Complete the sentences using will (shall) have + Past Participle form


Example: By 2030 the world's population will have increased to around 30 000 million.

1. Life ... (become) more automated by then.

2. Computers ... (take over) many of the jobs that people do today.

3. The earth's supplies of oil, coal and gas ... (run out).

4. ... scientists (find) other sources of energy?

5. How ... education ... (change)?

6. ... we (find) a way to feed all the people in the world?

7. ... the climate (change) greatly?

8. Many new medicines ... (be invented) that will save life of many sick people.


Lesson 4


Grammar: 1. Passive Voice 5 2.Text: "Other kinds of pollution" I.

I. Read and translate the following words and word- combinations:

Noise, acid, pesticides, mercury, lead, trouble, urban, rural, expose, loud, airplane, trucks, construction, cause, extreme, deafness, blood, pressure,

substance, weapons, nuclear, cell, eliminate, major, insects, pests, tissue,


II. Find the definition for the following words:

Noise, pesticide, blood, cell, tissue, insects, urban, rural.

1). Substance used to destroy pests

2). Mass of cells and cell products in an animal body

3). Loud and unpleasant sound, especially when confused and undesired.

4). Microscopic unit of living matter

5). Red liquid flowing throughout the body

6). Sorts of small animal, e.g. ant, fly, wasp, having six legs and no backbone and a body divided into three parts (head, thorax, abdomen).

7). Suitable for the countryside

8). Of or in a town.


III. Read and translate the text A:

Other Kinds of pollution


Some things that pollute the environment cannot be classified as air, water, or soil pollutants, or as solid wastes. They travel through and affect various parts of the environment. These pollutants include noise, radiation, acid rain, pesticides, and such metals as mercury and lead.

Noise is an especially trouble some pollutant in urban areas. People in and near cities are exposed to loud noise much of the time. The noise comes from such things as airplanes, automobiles, buses, motorcycles, trains, trucks, construction projects, and industries. The noise causes discomfort in human beings. In extreme cases, loud noise can also damage hearing or even cause deafness.

Radiation is an invisible pollutant that can be highly dangerous. Nuclear radiation comes from radioactive substances, including waste from nuclear weapons testing and from nuclear power plants. Small amounts of electromagnetic radiation are produced by a variety of electronic devices, including computers, lasers, microwave ovens, television sets, and X- ray machines. Scientists have not determined exactly what effects small amounts of radiation have on humans. But exposure to large amounts can cause cancer and harmful changes in reproductive cells. International agreements ban most testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. Such regulations have helped to eliminate major sources of radiation.

Acid rain has become an increasingly serious problem. This pollutant forms when moisture in the air combines with nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide released by automobiles, by factories, and by power plants that burn coal or oil. The reaction between the moisture and the chemical compounds produces nitric and sulfuric acids, which fall to the earth with rain or snow. The acids pollute lakes, streams, and oceans, resulting in the death of fish and the contamination of drinking water. They also can damage crops and forests and cause harmful changes in soil. This form of pollution can even damage buildings and statues. In addition, acid rain pollutants sometimes travel long distances, even from one country to another.

Pesticides affect more than the natural cycles in soil and water. Much pesticide material never reaches the insects or other pests it is intended to kill. Instead, tiny particles of the pesticide travel through the air and water, sometimes for great distances. Humans and animals that come in direct contact with the pesticide take it into their bodies, and the material collects in tissues and organs. Humans and animals also take in pesticides indirectly when they eat organisms that contain the material. For example, a large fish can take in heavy amounts of pesticide by eating smaller fish that have the material in their bodies. A human being may then eat the large fish and acquire the highly concentrated pesticide material. When materials are passed from one organism to another in this way, the materials travel through an ecological system called a food chain.

Thousands of tons of mercury, lead, and other heavy metals are put into the water and air each year in the form of liquids and gases. Most of these materials come from combustion processes in industries or from motor vehicle engines. Heavy metals, like pesticides, are long lasting and can spread over large areas. They also collect in tissues and organs and can pass through food chains. Most heavy metals are highly poisonous. In large amounts, they can affect the human nervous system.


Noise pollution is a problem in urban areas. Loud noises annoy people and, under some circumstances, can cause damage to hearing. Noises are measured in units called decibels. The chart below shows the approximate decibel level from some sources of noise and effects various decibel levels can have.


IV. Answer the following questions:

1) What does environmental pollution include except air, water, soil pollution?

2) From where does the noise come?

3) Is radiation an invisible pollutant?

4) From where does radiation come?

5) How does acid rain pollutant form?

6) Do pesticides affect as dangerous pollutants?


V. Make up sentences using the following words and word- combinations:

Loud noise, damage, invisible pollutant, nuclear, weapons, serious, problem, heavy metals.


Date: 2016-01-03; view: 3620

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