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The Civil War and the Basmachi Movement in Kyrgyzstan and Central Asia (1918-1930s).

22. Basmachi MOVEMENT, Basmachi (from Turk. "Basmak" - to attack, swoop), the Islamic insurgency in Central Asia in 1910, 1930. Basmachi rebels were called by the Bolsheviks and their supporters; the name itself: the Mujahideen (fighters for the faith ")," the warriors of Islam”.Fought against the Bolsheviks and the Russian population under the slogans of "holy war" against infidels. They were supported by the richs of the Muslim population, nationalist intellectuals of the Islamic clergy, a large part of believers, as well as pan-Islamic circles of Turkey and other countries. They received weapons from abroad, particularly from Britain. Errors of Bolshevik government against the indigenous population was essential stimulus for rebellion. Thus, until May 1918 it has been officially prohibited to allow Muslims to occupy government positions in the Soviet Turkestan, but even after that, only a few representatives of Central Asian people could expect to receive important positions. In the trade unions only Russian workers had been taken. measures that broke the traditional Islamic way of life and lifestyle caused serious dissatisfaction.
Detachments of Basmachi acted especially active in the Ferghana Valley and adjacent mountainous Alai and Artsinsk valleys in the Syr Darya and Samarkand regions, at Eastern Bukhara, Khiva, Karakum, Krasnovodsk district, Naryn district. Formation had from several dozen to several thousand people. Basmachi based in the remote mountains and deserts, they used to do horseback raids in heavily populated areas, killing Soviet functionaries and supporters of the Bolshevik government and the local population. The rebels used partisan tactics: they avoided collisions with large parts of the regular troops, suddenly chose to attack small detachments or undefended towns, and then quickly depart.
In 1918, the main center of the movement was Fergana, in 1919-1920 it had spread throughout most of Central Asia. In early 1921 the Red Army succeeded in defeating the main units in Fergana. In suppressing the movement often entire villages were destroyed. In 1924 Muslim rebellion again intensified in many areas due to drought, famine and widespread dissatisfaction with the public policy of the authorities. Although it was basically split in 1925-1926, some groups got into Soviet Central Asia from abroad prior to 1930.
Among the most famous representatives (leaders) of basmachi movement are Irgash, Madamin-bek Kurshirmat, Muetdin-bek, Ibrahim- bek and others.
By the autumn of 1926 basmachi movement was basically divided across Central Asia. New impetus to the movement was due to the forced collectivization in the late 1920's - early 1930's. Ibrahim Bek, who gathered more than 1 thousand horsemen , invaded in 1931 from Afghanistan to Tajikistan, but was defeated and taken prisoner. The rebels from Turkmen Karakum Desert also activated and lasted until 1933. Last basmachi groups disappeared after the Soviet Union in 1942 and Britain agreed to terminate the mutual hostility from the territory of Iran and Afghanistan.

 

 


Date: 2015-01-02; view: 1239


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