Stone Age on the Territory of Kyrgyzstan and Central Asia (2.5 million-5 thousand years ago).
Stone Age (2.5 million years ago – 6000 years ago)
Paleolith (Early Stone Age)
Mesolith (Middle Stone Age)
Neolith (New or Late Stone Age) Stone Age (2.5 million years ago – 6000 years ago)
The Stone Age is the longest historical and cultural period of human society, the main feature of which is the production of tools and instruments of stone. Its beginning dates back as 2.5 million years ago when the human separated from the animal world and ends 6000 years ago when tools started being made of metals.
First hominids appeared on the territory of Kyrgyzstan about a million years ago (800000 years ago). The most ancient stone tools found on the territory of Kyrgyzstan (300000 years ago): On Archa (Central Tien Shan), Kojo-Bakyrgan-Sai (Batken province) refer to Early Paleolith. The most ancient site is the Sel-Unkur cave (Haidarkan, south of Kyrgyzstan) that dates as 1.5 million years ago (by Uzbek scholars) or 600000 years ago (by Kyrgyz archeologists).
During that time people lived in groups – human bands. They could produce the most primitive stone tools, learnt how to produce and use fire.
During the time of Middle Paleolith the stone tools became more complicated. Various types of stone are used for tools, techniques become more complex. Stone tools of that period are found in Tosor Valley (Issyk-Kul), Georgievka village (Kazakhstan), Sasyk Unkur (Osh province), Ak Olon (Balykchy, Issyk-Kul).
In 1938 professor Okladnikov found the burial of a Neanderthal girl in Teshik Tash (Uzbekistan) that dates as 40000 years ago. That burial proves the fact that 40000 years ago people on the territory of Kyrgyzstan already buried their dead and probably they already got primitive religious beliefs about the life after the death.
During the period of Late Paleolith human bands developed into more progressive form – blood-related group, where people were united on the basis of blood as well as economic commonality. The main form of social organization was matriarchy in which a female played a dominating role, was the head of family or society, and descent and kinship are traced through the female line.
Mesolith is not well researched on the territory of Kyrgyzstan. Such site as Obshir I-V (Obshir River, south of Kyrgyzstan), Ak-Sai (Naryn).
During Neolith the so-called Neolithic Revolution took place. It was called the revolution because during that period a radical shift from hunting and gathering to producing farming and cattle breeding economies took place. Domestication of animals resulted in cattle breeding, while gathering helped to cultivate crops. Pastoralism and agriculture gradually became the main economies since then. Radical changes occurred also in the social organization of society, where matriarchy was declining in its significance, but the role of men whose labor became more important was increasing had been gradually replaced by patriarchy - the domination of men. Patriarchy became the main form of social organization during the Bronze Age.
Neolith sites are Semetei Grotto (Chatyr-Kul Lake, Naryn), Maitor (Kumtor), Terek I-VI (Ak Sai, Naryn), Teke Sekirik Cave (Kochkor, Naryn).