Calculating devices were used from the ancient times, such as counting the stones, abacus. Then came the mechanical calculating devices based on gear wheels. The first electronic and Electromechanical devices began to appear in the middle of the 20th century. The first programmable computer was created in 1941. And the first digital computer was used during the second world war. On the first devices the data was stored on a punched tape. Then began to appear storage based on a cathode-ray tube, but it was volatile. Non-volatile storage appeared in 1932. Most of the digital data today is still stored on magnetic devices, such as hard drives, or optical media, such as CD-ROM. The database is one of the most convenient forms of data representation. Data bases are used in the sphere of sales, services, organizations for conducting any financial operations. The uniqueness of each field in the database is given a special key. The key associated with the specified field in a database. The key is it to be found and not confused with some other object.
Response to the letter
I am very glad to receive from you an invitation to the scientific conference. I work in technical support of your Internet service provider. Will be interesting to get acquainted with new people and learn new information technologies. Conference will take place not far from me. It is very comfortable. The meeting will take place this weekend. I will not ask for leave from work. It will be interesting to see the trends and directions in the modern world. I bought a black suit especially for this event. I hope to make friends with many people. I believe that I will communicate with my new friends and after the conference.
- Please, tell me, who is the owner of this contract?
- Alexander V. Ershov.
- Thank you. Please, tell me what the error appears you have on your computer screen?
- Error 691.
- Thank you, this error indicates that you type the wrong username or password. Please, tell me, what username do you use?
- Yes, thank you, properly. Please, tell me, do you remember your password?
- No, can we change it?
- Yes, of course, please, tell me passport data of the owner of the contract.
- Thank you very much for the information provided, I can set the new password, it will be 06052013. Do you agree?
- Well, the new password is set, please try again to connect to the Internet.
- Thank you, it worked.
- I was glad to help you. Have you any questions?
- No, thank you.
- Thank you very much for your call, good-bye.
Questions for the State Exam
1. What is History? Time Periods and Historical Sources on the History of Kyrgyzstan.
What is History? The Word History originated from the Greek Word “Historia” which means “inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation” and has entered the English language in 1390, meaning “relation of incidents, story.” In the late 15th century this word received the meaning “record of past events.” Sir George Clark believes hat knowledge of the past has come down through one or more human minds, has been “processed” by them and therefore cannot be impersonal. It is affected by the person, it has the personal judgments and points of view. One is as good as another, so there is no “objective” historical truth and cannot ever be. Therefore, history is interpretation. When we try to answer the question of “what is history,” consciously or unconsciously we reflect our own position in time. History is a process of selection. The documents don’t tell us what happened, but only what a historian thought what happened or wanted others to think what happened or what he wanted himself to think it happened. As a result, facts and docs alone don’t constitute a history, they provide in themselves no ready made answer to the question of what is history. Other disciplines help in historical research. The interaction of the disciplines with historical discipline helps to more deeply understand historical processes. For example, chronology determines the actual sequence of past events; paleography studies the ancient forms of writing (and the deciphers them); numismatics studies the collection of coins and money, epigraphy learns the ancient writings on rocks, metals, wood and other items, genealogy investigates ancestry, heraldry studies the symbols of states, people and cities, topology learns the geographical names and etc. Various disciplines interact; aid each other to learn their subjects better.
Definition: History- a branch of knowledge that records and analyzes past events; a usually chronological record of events, as of the life or development of a people, often including an explanation of or commentary on those events; The study of the past or the product of our attempts to understand the past, rather than the past itself.
Approaches to history:
Formation (Marxist) approach- primitive, slaveholding system, feudalism, capitalism, and socialism
Civilization approach- 13 civilizations of Danilevsky, 13 civilizations of Spengler, 26 civilizations of Toynbee)
Periods of Kyrgyzstani history
Stone and Bronze Ages (800000 – 1000 BC): first stone tools found on the territory of Kyrgyzstan, the burial of Neanderthal girl, two cultures of Bronze age;
Iron Age (1000 BC – 6th century): Sakas and Usuni civilizations, the opening of the Great Silk Road;
The Middle Ages (6-14th centuries): the Turkic dynasties – the Western Turks, Turgesh, Karluks, and Karakhanids, Yenisei Kyrgyzs, the formation of common Turkic language and culture, flourishing of Turkic trade along the Silk Road and establishment of handicraft centers: Suyab, Balasagun, Uzgen;
Mongolian Rule (13-16th centuries): Conquest of Central Asia by Mongolians and establishment of Chingizid and Timurid dynasties in Central Asia (Chaghatai, Haydu, Mogolistan). The decay of urban centers: Bukhara, Samarkand, Balasagun, Uzgen
5. The formation of the Kyrgyz ethnic group in the Tien-Shan Mountains (15-16th centuries): local, Central Asian and South Siberian roots of the Kyrgyz formation
6. Kyrgyz ethnic consolidation (17-19th centuries): Kyrgyz fighting against states of Dzhungharia (Kalmyk), China and Kokand
Russian colonization (19-early 20th centuries): the 1916 Kyrgyz revolt
8. Soviet Rule (early 1920s – 1991): Soviet economy, Stalinism, Rusification, decline of national cultures;
Post-Soviet period (1991-present): independence, democratization, market economy, the 2005 March events.
Written chronicles: Chinese, Greek, Arabic, Persian, Turkic, Western
Oral sources: legends, epics, genealogies, songs
Material sources: archeological objects, architecture, and ethnographic things (dress, food)
Functions of History:
because without knowing our past there is no way to future. History is important because it helps us to understand the present. If we will listen to what history has to say, we can come to a sound understanding of the past that will tell us much about the problems we now face. History teaches values. Moreover, it influences our future. As these movements and settlements prove, the present history of KG and of its different oblasts and rayons is impossible to look upon without looking up to the history of neighboring countries and nations.