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Specialization of meaning —see narrowing.

Standard English— the official language of Great Britain taught at schools and universities, used by the press, the radio and the television and spoken by educated people, it may be defined as that form of English which is current and literary, substantially uniform and recognized as acceptable wherever English is spoken or understood.

Stem— 1) the part of the word that remains unchanged throughout its paradigm (secondary stem), e.g. worker, lucky — the secondary stems are: worker- (cf. workers, worker's) and lucky- (cf. luckier, luckiest); 2) the part of the word that remains when the immediate derivational affix is stripped off, e.g. the part on which the word is built (primary or derivational stem), e.g. the primary stems of worker, lucky are work and luck.

Kinds of stems: simple,e.g. place, green, derived,e.g. useful, uselessness, bound,e.g. arrogance, arrogant, compound,e.g. trade-union, etc.

Style of language— a system of expressive means of language peculiar to a specific sphere of communication, e.g. the newspaper style, the belles-letres style, etc.

Stylistic level of analysisis aimed at establishing the stylistic colouring of the word, e.g. nourishment is a word of literary style, threat is a word of neutral style, baccy (curtailment of tobacco) is a word of colloquial style.

Stylistic synonyms— words that are similar in their denotational meaning(s) but different in their connotational meaning(s), e.g. motherly - maternal, to put off - to postpone, cf. absolute (total, complete) synonyms.

Stylistics— a branch of general linguistics dealing with the study of language styles and stylistic devices.

Subordinative(often called determinative) compound— a compound whose components are not equal in importance. The relation between them is based on the domination of one component over the other. The second component in these compounds is the structural and semantic centre (head) which imparts the part-of-speech meaning to the whole word, e.g. banknote, teaspoon, duty-free, grandson, etc.

Substantiation— turning into nouns, e.g. female (n) from female 'adj), relative (n) from relative (adj), criminal (n) from criminal (adj), etc.

Substitution— the method of testing similarity (or difference) by
)lacing into identical environment (within identical or similar contexts), Lo
:.g. / know this book -1 know it.

Suffix— a derivational morpheme (an affix) placed after the stem, e.g. -ness (goodness), -less (friendless), -er (worker), etc.

Suffixal derivative— a word formed with the help of a suffix.

Suffixation— the formation of words with the help of suffixes. It is very productive in Modern English, especially so in noun and adjective word-formation, e.g. actor, thirsty, etc.

Synchronic approach(in lexicology) — the approach concerned with the vocabulary of a language as it exists at a given time, for instance, at the present time, the previous stages of development considered irrelevant.

Syncope— medial clipping, i.e. (the formation of the word by the omission of the middle part of the word, e.g. fancy from fantasy, specs from spectacles, etc.

Synecdoche— a type of metonymy consisting in the substitution ' of the name of a whole by the name of some of its parts or vice versa, e.g. a hand - a worker, employee, etc.

Synonyms— words of the same part of speech different in their sound-form but similar in their denotational meaning and interchangeable at least in some contexts, e.g. to look, to seem, to appear; high - tall, etc. see absoluteor total, complete, perfect, ideographic, stylistic synonyms.

Synonymic dominant— the most general word in a given group of synonyms, e.g. red, purple, crimson; doctor,physician, surgeon; toleave, abandon, depart.

Synonymic set— a group of synonyms, e.g. big, large, great, huge, tremendous.

Syntactic compounds— compounds whose components are placed in the order that conforms to the rules of Modern English syntax, e.g. a know-nothing, a blackboard, daytime etc. (cf. to know nothing, a black colour, spring time).


Date: 2016-01-03; view: 1017

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Pejorationsee degradation. | Telescoping —see blending.
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