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COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME CLASSES OF FUNGI

Features Class
Phucomycetes Askomycetes Basidiomycetes Deuteromycetes
Dissemination Everywhere (soil, organic debris, food, etc.). Everywhere (soil, fruits, organic residues, parasitic on higher plants, only in culture) Everywhere, often form a symbiosis with higher plants cultivated Everywhere (soil, crops and food products)
Mycelium unsegmented Segmented or single-celled organisms Segmented Segmented
Fruit bodies, their type and characteristics not formed Kleystotets - closed round: perytetsi - half open, plechykovydn, apotets-open cups or blyudtsevydni. Some are not formed Leathery, woody i, different shapes or differentiated into stem and cap In the majority do not form, in some species kleystotets
Reproduction Vehetatvne, asexual - sporanhiosporamy, sexual - the type of zyhohamyi Vegetative - Part mycelium, budding, sclerotia. Asexual - konidiosporamy. Sex - alkosporamy, formed in bags (askah) course on 8 Vegetative Parts of mycelium. Asexual-konidiosporamy Sex-basidiospore, which are formed on basidia Vegetative Parts of mycelium. Asexual-konidiosporamy. Sexual reproduction is absent in the majority
The most typical representatives and their application Amanita (white mold) breaks down organic matter, spoil foods affects the central nervous system, skin and organs of the human ear Yeast in bread, producing alcohol and beer, with metabolic; candidates - to get feed proteins, pathogens skin (kandydomi-goats) in humans. Horns-of-alkoloyidy in gynecology as a hemostatic In lung and gastric diseases ,as anticancer agent, white mushroom and others. - eatable Asperhyl and penicillium (green mold) - for antibiotics, enzymes, citric and others. organic acids. Decompose organic residues, spoiled food
           

Answer to MCQ


1. Fungal mitosis is unusual in that

a. it occurs without spindle fibers

b. it resembles plant meiosis, having a reduction division

c. it results in clusters of chromosomes without a nuclear membrane

d. it takes place within the nucleus

2. Mushrooms and puffballs appear rapidly because of

a. rapid cell division

b. rapid elongation of hyphae

c. rapid water absorption

d. rapid multiplication and inflation of vacuoles

3. Deuteromycetes are called imperfect fungi because

a. the sexual cycle has not been observed

b. nothing about them indicates their relation to other fungi

c. they do not produce mycelia

d. they have no asexual reproduction

4. Most ectomycorrhizae are

a. Ascomycetes

b. Deuteromycetes

c. Zygomycetes

d. Basidiomycetes

5. Fungi reproduce sexually with

a. swimming gametes

b. nuclear exchange

c. nonflagellate gametes

d. parthenogenesis

6. Zygomycete hyphae are unique in that they

a. have perforated septa

b. are monokaryotic

c. are dikaryotic

d. lack septa

e. have solid septa

7. The _______________ are not basidiomycetes



a. Toadstools

b. Puffballs

c. Morels

d. shelf fungi

e. mushrooms

8. Parasexuality occurs

a. within heterokaryotic hyphae

b. between dikaryotic hyphae

c. between homokaryotic hyphae

d. between heterokaryotic hyphae

e. only in yeasts

9. Fungi are virtually the only organism capable of breaking down

a. Cellulose

b. Lignin

c. Oil

d. Chiti

e. Starch

10. Basidiospores are borne on the ends of

a. primary mycelia

b. basidiocarps

c. trichogynes

d. sterigmata

e. secondary mycelia

11. Conidia are multinucleate spores produced in

a. Gametangia

b. Basidia

c. Sporangia

d. Asci

e. none of the above

12. Athlete's foot is caused by a member of the

a. Yeasts

b. Fungi Imperfecti

c. Endomycorrhizae

d. Basidiomycetes

e. Zygomycetes

13. Fungi regulate the formation of microtubules during mitosis with

a. basal bodies

b. centromeres

c. centrioles

d. spindle plaques

e. heterochromatin

14. The cells of the secondary mycelium of basidiomycetes have _______________ nuclei.

a. Many

b. 16

c. 8

d. 4

e. 2

15. In the zygomycetes, most spores are produced by

a. somatic meiosis

b. mitosis

c. syngamy

d. zygotic meiosis

e. sporic meiosis

16. Asexual reproduction occurs in _______________ by sporangia.

a. Yeasts

b. Basidiomycetes

c. Ascomycetes

d. imperfect fungi

e. zygomycetes

17. Most yeast reproduction occurs by

a. Budding

b. Conidia

c. Syngamy

d. Ascospores

e. Basidiospores

18. The fungal components of lichens are mostly

a. Basidiomycetes

b. Fungi Imperfecti

c. Ascomycetes

d. Zygomycetes

e. Mycorrhizae

19. Oomycetes are distinguished from fungi by all of the characteristics below except

a. source of nutrition

b. spore motility

c. cellulose walls

d. pattern of mitosis

e. diploid hyphae

20. Fungi have been incorrectly classified as plants because of their

a. types of chlorophyll

b. immobility

c. cell wall composition

d. mitotic activity

e. gametes

21. Cell walls of fungi are composed primarily of

a. Lignin

b. Cellulose

c. Chitin

d. Pectin

e. Glycoprotein

22. Male gametes of ascomycetes enter the female gametangium by way of the

a. Ascogonium

b. Antheridium

c. Thrichogyne

d. Ascopore

e. Hyphae

23. Fungi Imperfecti includes members of

a. Ascomycetes

b. Basidiomycetes

c. Zygomycetes

d. all of the above

e. none of the above

24. Fungi most resemble plants in their

a. Immobility

b. cell walls

c. sexuality

d. food acquisition

e. basic three dimensionality

25. Fungal hyphae with two genetically distinct nuclei are said to be

a. Polykaryotic

b. Monokaryotic

c. Dikaryotic

d. Karyotic

e. Heterokaryotic

26. Fungi are classified into phyla primarily on differences in:

a. reproductive structures.

b. number of nuclei per cell.

c. cell wall composition.

d. preferred habitat of growth.

e. mode of locomotion.

27. With respect to the life cycle of mushroom-producing basidiomycete, which of the following structures is haploid?

a. monokaryotic hypha

b. basidiospore

c. basidium

d. clamp connection

e. more than one of the structures above are haploid

28. Fungi are different from plants because fungi:

a. are heterotrophs

b. have filamentous bodies

c. have cell walls made of chitin

d. have nuclear mitosis

e. all of the above

29. Which of the following is a reproductive structure of a fungus?

a. Gametangia

b. Sporangia

c. Conidia

d. all of the above

e. none of the above

30. Which one of the following groups of fungi has not been observed to reproduce sexually?

a. Ascomycota

b. Imperfect fungi

c. Basidiomycota

d. Zygomycota

e. both a and c

31. In which phylum of fungi does the fusion of hyphae lead directly to the formation of a zygote?

a. Ascomycota

b. Imperfect fungi

c. Basidiomycota

d. Zygomycota

e. all of the above

32. The common mushroom or toadstool belongs to the phylum:

a. Ascomycota

b. Imperfect fungi

c. Basidiomycota

d. Zygomycota

e. none of the above

33. When hyphae of basidiomycetes fuse in sexual reproduction, the resulting cell can best be called a:

a. Monokaryon

b. Dikaryon

c. Homokaryon

d. Basidiocarp

e. none of the above

34. The imperfect fungi include organisms related to

a. Penicillin

b. the fermentation of soy sauce

c. athlete's foot

d. the flavor of Roquefort cheese

e. all of the above

35. A lichen is a highly integrated mutualistic association between two different fungi.

a. True

b. False

36. The deuteromycetes are an artificial collection of fungi that are probably not very closely related

a. True

b. False

37. Hyphae are made up of a long string of cells, separated by septa, that prevents the mixing of cytoplasm between cells.

a. True

b. False

38. Lichens are a special fungus belonging to the phylum Ascomycota.

a. True

b. False

39. All yeasts are single-celled organisms derived from the phylum Zygomycota.

a. True

b. False

40. The button mushroom some of us put on our pizza is a basidiocarp.

a. True

b. False


 

 


 

Theme 23


Date: 2016-01-03; view: 892


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