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Oil reserves of Africa

The oil reserves of Africa is estimated the 7% of the world oil reserves. Nigeria takes the first place in Africa in terms of oil resources about 2,3% of world oil resources .The biggest oil fields: The Dalia Oil Field (Angola),

 

The Dalia Oil Field is an oil field in deepwater block 17, 135 kilometres (84 mi) off the coast of Cabinda, Angola. The field lies in water depths varying between 1,200 and 1,500 metres (3,900 and 4,900 ft). Dalia oil field was discovered in September 1997 and brought into production in December 2006

 

 

Agbami Field is an oil field in Nigeria. Discovered in late 1998, it was the second major deepwater oil field discovered off the Niger Delta, the first being Bonga Field by Shell.

 

The field is located in nearly 1,500 meters (4,900 ft) of water off the central Niger Delta. The operator of the field is Star Deep Water Limited, an affiliate of Chevron. Also involved in the field are Famfa Oil, an indigenous oil company owned by the Alakija Family of Lagos, Petrobras (Brazil), Statoil, and NNPC (the national oil company of Nigeria).

 

Europe

Although Europe long ago written off in a big oil game, the history of the oil industry of the world is born in the Old World.

 

In fact, once, and France and Italy felt quite comfortable with such small volumes. More than they just did not need it. But, as they say usually in such cases and about all European countries, "the rapid growth of the industry resulted in the incredible increase in the needs of all countries in the oil." Feeders whole of Europe has long been the North Sea. It now feeds, but only the UK and Norway.

 

At the moment the country produces about 100 million. Tons of oil per year. The figure for Europe's huge, but it does not allow Britain to remain free imported raw materials for a long time. First oil and gas delivered to the UK mainly from the North Sea shelf, but the amount of fuel for a long time was not enough to cover the growing needs of the country.

 

According to the Ministry of Trade and Industry - total oil reserves at the beginning of 2004 amounted to 3.767 billion. Tons, including proven - 3.481 billion. Tons. The largest oil fields on the UK continental shelf in the North Sea are: Lehman-Benk, Brent, and Bizzard Morkem. Among the continental - the largest oil field is considered Vutch Farms with reserves of about 60 million. Tons of oil. This is the future of the country, but it is already safe to say that the status of the oil exporter it is no longer on the shoulder.

 

The eternal enemy of Britain, France in oil she did not rival. But it was France can boast the first experience of commercial production of black gold. The first oil mining method has been applied in the field Peshelbronn in France. There are more than a hundred years (1735) conducted the commercial development of both heavy and light oil wells and mines to the surface. For two centuries in France, production in these fields around one million tons of oil. Let a little bit, but then the country has been at the forefront of miners. In 1963, production at the mine was stopped Peshelbronne. The result of this development is that from the surface produced 2 million. Tons, drainage mining method on the already depleted deposits - 1 million tons. Also unique oil is now an open way, there is nothing to boast of the country. In 2006, oil consumption in France was 1.97 million. Barrels a day and production - 21.5 th. Barrels. All that will be produced during the year on French fields, the country will suffice for a maximum of three weeks. Proven oil reserves in France are not so great - 122 million. Tons.



 

The nearby Italy just oil giant compared to France. The annual volume of production is in the range of 4-6 mln. Tons. Commercial oil production began in the country in the 50-ies of the last century. Significant reserves of "black gold" account for 85 million. M., Which at current production rates will suffice only 12-15 years. The largest onshore fields - Trecate, Monte Alpi, Ragusa, on the continental shelf - painted Mare Aquila, Gela. On most offshore heavy oil produced in Italy - 8-22 API, which complicates its processing. At the end of the 90s in most offshore due to the depletion of oil production stopped. As a result, by 2003, 90% of all oil produced in Italy on land.

 

Very bad deal with oil production in Spain. The main field - Casablanca -on Mediterranean Sea offshore. But production on its territory covers only 1% of the country. Since 1988 (peak production) up to 2000, the level of production of its own oil fell from 1.8 mln. Tonnes to 300 thous. Tons. And there is nothing to produce - proven oil reserves reach 1 million tons.

 

With Germany the situation is different. The basis of the oil industry in Germany - the coastal areas. Most of Germany's crude oil comes from the largest oil field in the middle of the west coast of Schleswig-Holstein, where the country annually produces two million tons of oil. According to experts, there will be more to pump 30-35 million. Tons, and of the nearby small deposits - has about 14 million. Tons of oil. Scientists predict that in the depths of Germany has stored about 560 million. Tons of crude oil, production of which is still considered to be too labor-intensive and unprofitable, but because of the rise in oil prices could be a new project industrious burghers. Last year, Germany was produced three and a half million tons of oil, so the country's future reserves will suffice for a long time.

 

 

Europe, having the largest energy companies in the world, has turned the whole world into its oil colony due to the fact that within the countries of the Old World is not just oil. The total production of the largest representatives of the mainland does not exceed the annual volume of Russian companies according to the "Bashneft" and "Tatneft". Sometimes it seems that all of these fields easier to close, but in fact they perform several important functions - allow you to master new technologies, are a testing ground for training young professionals and allow residents of the country is safe to say that the oil they have. At the same time, BP, ENI, PKN Orlen, Gaz de france travel through the rest of the world in search of a really big oil.

 

Asia

The first industrial oil reserves in West Asia are found in south-western Iran in 1908 (mine Masjed Soleyman). At the end of the 1920s he began to operate a number of oil fields, particularly Kirkuk (Iraq), Gechsaran, Haftkel (Iran). In 1932 he opened a giant oil and gas field on the island of Bahrain A'ali, and giant gas and oil, and oil fields and Pazenan Aghajari (Iran), Dammam, Abqaiq Abu Khadra (Saudi Arabia). In 1938 he opened the world's largest deposit of Greater Burgan (Kuwait), in 1948 - Ghawar (Saudi Arabia). In 1950 - 60 years revealed more than 80 major oil fields. In the 1970s, we discovered giant gas fields in the south-eastern part of the Persian Gulf and adjacent areas of Iran, Qatar, UAE, Iraq. As oil reserves Western Asia occupies a leading position among other regions of the world: about 45 billion tons of oil and 20 trillion cubic meters of gas. Most oil and gas fields are connected with the world's largest oil and gas basins of the Persian Gulf. Individual oil and gas deposits are found in the other basins of the region (Iran, Afghanistan, Israel). Until the 90s of the twentieth century in Western Asia, was discovered 302 oil and gas-oil and 54 gas fields. Basic proven reserves of hydrocarbons are found at depths of 1-3 km. The main productive strata - Permian, Upper Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous and Oligocene-Lower Miocene.

 

The main volumes of oil and natural gas in South Asia identified and explored in the 60-70-ies. In Pakistan, India and Bangladesh are more than 80 fields. Of proven oil reserves in these deposits are estimated at 623 million tons, and gas - 1,450,000,000,000,000 cubic meters (1998). The largest oil and gas basins in South Asia - Cambay (India), Bengali (India and Bangladesh) and Punjab (Pakistan). Promising areas known on the shelf of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Potentially promising are also Quality Kathiyavarsky other platform deflections. The largest deposits: Ankleshwar, Nahorkatya, Bombay Khan (India); Sui, Dhulian, Mari, Sari Sing, Hundi (Pakistan); Titas, Sylhet, Çatak, Habiganj (Bangladesh).

Exploration for oil and gas in the region are carried out with the 60-ies of XIX century. Since 1954, began exploration on the continental shelf in the region. As of early 90-ies of XX century, the proven reserves of oil in South-East Asia about 2000 million tonnes (2.6% of the world), the reserves of natural gas - 3000 billion cubic meters (4.6%). Major oil and gas fields associated with Cenozoic boundary and vnutriskladchatymi deflections and partly due to deflections and depressions geosynclines (Philippines). It was found 36 promising basins, 25 of which - in Indonesia. Major oil and gas basins - in North Sumatra, North the Java (Indonesia), Saravakskom (Brunei) and West Palawan (Philippines) foredeeps. Oilfield giant - Minas, other large - series and the North West Ampa.

Oil fields

Today Kazakhstan is among the top 15 countries in the world when it comes to essential oil reserves, having 3% of the world's total oil reserves. 62% of the country is occupied by oil and gas areas, and there are 172 oil fields, of which more than 80 are under development. More than 90% of oil reserves are concentrated in the 15 largest oil fields - Tengiz, Kashagan, Karachaganak, Uzen, Zhetybai, Zhanazhol, Kalamkas, Kenkiyak, Karazhanbas, Kumkol, North Buzachi, Alibekmola, Central and Eastern Prorva, Kenbai, Korolevskoye. Oil fields can be found in six of the fourteen provinces of Kazakhstan. They are the Aktobe, Atyrau, West Kazakhstan, Karaganda, Kyzylorda and Mangystau provinces. About 70% of the hydrocarbon reserves are concentrated in western Kazakhstan.

The Atyrau province holds claim to the most significant amount of oil fields, in which more than 75 fields have commercial reserves of 930 million tonnes. The largest field in the province is Tengiz (with 781.1 million tonnes of initial recoverable reserves). The remaining fields in the area have around 150 million tonnes of initial recoverable reserves. More than half of those are concentrated in two fields: Korolevskoye (55.1 million tonnes) and Kenbai (30.9 million tonnes).

Mangystau province's territory has been benefited by the discovery of more than 70 fields with commercial recoverable reserves of 725 million tonnes, and 5.6 million tonnes of condensate.

Less than half of the fields are in operation. Most of those fields are mature ones, and are difficult to recover. The largest oil fields are Uzen, Zhetybai, Kalamkas, and Karazhanbas. The largest oil field in the West Kazakhstan Province is Karachaganak with recoverable reserves of liquid hydrocarbon feedstock of around 320 million tonnes and over 450 billion cubic meters of natural gas. In September 2005 the discovery of hydrocarbons was announced in the Fedorovsky block near Karachaganak block; oil and gas condensate reserves are estimated to amount to 200 million tonnes.

Another promising region in terms of its oil and gas potential is the Aktobe province. Around 25 fields have been discovered there. The most important geological discoveries in this region are the Zhanazhol group of fields with recoverable oil and condensate reserves amounting to about 170 million tonnes. In 2005, it was announced that a new field Umit was discovered in the central block of the eastern Caspian depression.

The most critical for the oil industry in the Kyzylorda and Karaganda provinces is the Kumkol group of fields which is the fifth largest oil and gas area in Kazakhstan. While operating in the area in the summer of 2005 PetroKazakhstan announced the discovery of commercial oil reserves in the licensed Kolzhan area adjacent to the northern boundary of the Kyzylkiya field.

 

 

Key figures

Overall, according to the Kazakhstan Ministry of Oil and Gas, proven hydrocarbon reserves, both onshore and offshore, are estimated to amount to 4.8 billion tonnes, or more than 35 billion barrels, while as of 2001 the explored in-place reserves of oil were only 2.9 billion tonnes. Furthermore, according to some experts, there are probably more reserves of oil in fields located in the Kazakh section of the Caspian Sea, which may be over 17 billion tonnes or 124.3 billion barrels. Given the oil and gas reserves as well as the ever-increasing production volumes, in the foreseeable future, Kazakhstan is much likely to remain among top oil producers.

According to the Ministry of Oil and Gas, oil production in 2011 amounted to 80.1 million tonnes. Let us put this in perspective, in 1998, oil production was fixed at 25.93 million tonnes. With 39.5 billion cubic meters produced in 2011 Kazakhstan remains a top natural gas producer among the CIS countries.

2,146.9 thousand tonnes of liquefied petroleum gas was produced last year by oil and gas processing companies in Kazakhstan. Domestic consumption of gas was 10.179 billion cubic meters.

Refinery throughput at domestic refineries amounted to 13.7 million tonnes, of which gasoline was 2.76 million tonnes; diesel fuel, 4.06 million tonnes; oil, 3.66 million tonnes; jet kerosene, 387.1 thousand tonnes. This being said, according to the KazMunaiGas Refining and Marketing in 2011, the volume of oil refining was 4.47 million tonnes at the Atyrau Refinery, 2.3 million tonnes at the PKOP plant (Shymkent refinery), and to 4.6 million tonnes at the Pavlodar refinery.

Kazakhstan exports some crude through pipeline. In 2011, oil exports amounted to 69.61 million tonnes including through the following oil pipelines: Atyrau-Samara, 15.43 million tonnes; CPC, 28.44 million tonnes; Atasu-Alashankou, 10.89 million tonnes. In money terms, oil exports were equal to US$ 55.2 billion, accounting for 62.5% of the total exports of Kazakhstan. The volume of gas exports from Kazakhstan in 2011 amounted to 8.15 billion cubic meters. The volume of international gas transit across Kazakhstan for the same period amounted to 96.67 billion cubic meters, of which: Russia, 62 billion cubic meters; Turkmenistan, 26.5 billion cubic meters; Uzbekistan, 8.2 billion cubic meters.

In future, the volume of oil and gas in Kazakhstan is expected to grow significantly. The growth of oil and gas production in Kazakh can be linked to the following three factors. First, it is due to a significant influx of investment. Second, due to favourable world market conditions for crude production. Finally, a large-scale study of the subsoil areas in the Caspian and Aral Seas will contribute to further addition of resources.

According to Oil and Gas Information and Analysis Centre, a subsidiary of Contract Agency, the total number of people involved in the oil and gas industry is 71,336, including 2,431 expats.

 


Date: 2016-01-03; view: 1143


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