The term "journalism genres" refers to various journalism styles, fields or separate genres, in writing accounts of events. Genre is historically established type, kind of journalistic production. The genres of journalism differ from literary by authenticity, trustworthiness, direction of the facts.
Feature articles are usually longer forms of writing; more attention is paid to style than in straight news reports. Mostly they are combined with photographs, drawings or other "art." They may also be highlighted by typographic effects or colors.
Writing features can be more demanding than writing straight news stories, because while a journalist must apply the same amount of effort to accurately gather and report the facts of the story, he or she must also find a creative and interesting way to write it. The lead (or first two paragraphs of the story; see Nut graph) must grab the reader's attention and yet accurately embody the ideas of the article.
The various journalism genres have been determined the topic and the style of the information. In the past, the different between the straight news and feature writing looks so clear. But for now, it is getting blurred and more difficult to classify. Refers to the latest classification, there are over 20 journalism genres now. The major genres are including ambush journalism, celebrity or people journalism, journalism, convergence journalism, new journalism, science journalism and sport journalism.
Basis of all journalistic productions is the fact. The fact is the passed event. The facts are a basis of information. The fact has the following properties:
4. the public importance,
5. It should not be banal.
The information is packed from the facts.
There are three steps of a stereotype of perception of the information:
1. The first step - information, especially not touching consciousness, only in a brief instant excites imagination of the recipient.
2. The second step - information, slightly touching consciousness and subconscious, only attracts the attention of the recipient.
3. The third step - information, has imprinted both in consciousness and in subconscious, causes the active creative response of the recipient, that is finishing by real action, changing shape of the validity in the positive party.
The information genres differ by the special methods and receptions of transmission of the information consisting in a narration, in so-called, "telegraphic style" of the real facts in a context of real time. Information genres concern: newsreel information, extended information, note, remark, report, epistolary genres, interview and a piece of reporting.
Newsreel information - answers to the questions: What? Where? When? and consists of 2 - 15 lines.
It is printed in official and non-official newspapers. The language of newsreel information is bookish, the style is bare, abstract, official.
The extended information has volume in 30-150 lines. There can be a comment in contrast to newsreel information. The comment is a wide explanation of the facts, interpretation of not clear or not concretized sides. Kinds of the comment:
1. Extended comment - extensive explanation of the fact.
2. Comment of the expert - the fact is commented by the professional, more competent man.
3. Polar comment - interpretation, explanation of the fact by various experts, competent in that area.
4. Synchronous comment - explanation of the text by the journalist in the course of statements.
5. Detailed comment - explanation of the facts to smallest details.
Also at the extended information there can be additional details, heroes etc.
Note is the most ancient genre in journalism. The note differs from newsreel and extended information by the author's signature, as its basis is the letter of the reader. The factor of time is important in the information, in the note the fact is in various time measurements.
The remark is a brief emotional response to any performance. The basic feature of a retort is the mood.
Epistolary genres are the letters of the readers, the basis of bases of journalism. The letters in all times and epoch, since the first day of occurrence of journalism have made a basis of all materials. Kinds of epistolary genres:
1. the letter - offer,
2. letter - response,
3. letter - complaint,
4. letter - question,
5. letter - answer.
The report - concentrated submission of any past event, arrangement. The report differs from other genres by dryness and sequence of a statement. Kinds of the reports: the direct report - direct transmission from the place of event without the excessive comments; the report - communiqué - story about past political meeting; the report - thought, with elements of commenting; the extensive report - transmission of the event accompanying with the extended comments. Language and style of the report - officially - business.
Interview - some experts rank this genre to independent, but the majority of the experts consider that it has features of information genre. "Interview are the answers, representing public interest of the concrete person (group of people) to journalist questions, conversation, when the journalist is not limited with laconic questions but argues with the interlocutor, makes comments on his answers".
According to research work of the professor Ì.Ê.Barmankulova, the interview is divided into two groups: on character of interrogating interviewer - journalist and on character of interrogated - interviewer-of the hero. To the first group he refers: interview - information, interview - opinion; to the second - interview - emotion and interview - sociological interrogation.
Kinds of interview: interview - monologue, interview - dialogue (classical interview), exclusive- interview, interview - message, interview - sketch etc.; also small forms of interview - interview - express, blitz-interview.
There are also kinds of mass interview: press conferences, briefings. Genre of interview concern: the questionnaire, conversation around "a round table" etc.
The reporting - genre, operatively and brightly "transmitting" from the place of events. The most basic and specific feature of a genre - "effect of presence" is when the reader, the listener, spectator sees and hears the happened event by eyes of the reporter. The author is a direct participant of the event, attaches to it all readers, listeners and spectators.
Kinds of reporting: events - the event is transmitted chronologically (the reporting can be before and after events), thematic - the event can be transmitted from any places, there can be extended and detailed comments and organized-situational, when the reporting is transmitted from unplanned events.
Analytical genres of journalism
The analytical genres of journalism are based on a method of an induction and deduction, analysis and synthesis. The induction, or analysis - when any problem is considered by decomposition on parts, from common - to individual. The deduction, or synthesis - when at first parts of a problem separately, and then in the general plan are considered.
In comparison with information genres, analytical are wider on an actual material, world scale on idea, on researching of vital - important phenomena.
To analytical genres concern: article, correspondence, review, critique.
Article is a local display of vital - important phenomena, problem or urgent situation. The scale conclusions are anticipated by the characteristic of facts and situations, considered in aggregate. The facts in article play an illustrative role, a problem and phenomenon are important in the article. The argumentation and motivation of actions are used fully in articles. There are all kinds of texts:
1. a narration,
2. description and reflection.
Kinds of articles:
1. Advanced is based on directivity;
2. Propaganda - the important method of it is propagation;
3. Scientific and scientific- popular articles;
4. Problematic, requiring (demanding) from the author of all-round, deep study of a question, competence, initiative, boldness.
The correspondence is a display "of a part of life", genre constructed on a concrete material, where the urgent theme is developed, the certain problem is decided in the analytical plan. In contrast to article, the method of deduction - synthesis is applied in the correspondence, i.e. the problem is decided from the particular to the general. Kinds of the correspondence:
1. Information It differs in breadth of scope of a material, detailed development of the theme.
2. The analytical correspondence opens the reasons of the describing phenomenon. It has critical plan.
3. Organized correspondence reflects a burning, urgent situation on the basis of the analysis and synthesis of facts.
4. The correspondence-meditation.
The journalist together with the reader analyses, compares, confronts, and estimates a lot of the facts. The structure is arbitrary in the article, but it is specific in the correspondence. It has: a rubric, heading, headlines, introduction, basic part and ending. It is possible to define the character of the correspondence from the heading. Introductions of different kinds of this genre are different: with a plot, information, and problematical character. Ending is differing by characteristic features.
The critique is a genre, where the artistic or scientific production, political or technical literature, theatrical statements, films, television transmission, art exhibitions, musical concerts and even household situations are criticized and given the estimation. The critique is also defined as criticism of "reflected validity".
The critic usually operates with the secondary facts. There are also present materials based on facts and theses in the critique. The addressees, whom the critique addresses are recipient, that is reader, listener and spectator, and also author of the estimated or criticized production. Therefore, the direct tasks of the critique are educational and aesthetic. Characteristic feature of the critique is the position of the critic - modernity. Therefore retrospective tasks also can be solved at the process of critique. Kinds of the critique:
4. Cinema critique etc.
Review is a genre acquainting an audience with certain events with use of the analytical comment. Differently it is possible to name a review "as a panorama of events". Kinds of reviews:
1. Internal - about events of life inside the country.
2. International - about the international life; distinguish on time:
5. Cultural etc.
Analytical genres for the last decade, alongside with information genres have occupied the basic niche of journalistic performances in the information space. There have appeared newspapers with only analytical genres basically, it is such, as: "Panorama", "Business week" and others.