The Eiffel Tower was built for 3 years on the Champ de Mars in 1889 for the World Exhibition to commemorate the 100-year anniversary of the Revolution. By Chrysler building in Manhattan, it was the tallest building in the world. However, in its early years, the Eiffel Tower was criticized artistic and literary elite of Paris.
It’s almost been ready to bear. But because it was an ideal platform for antennas needed at the time to the development of science and technology, it still rehabilitated.
The Eiffel Tower is named after its designer Gustave Eiffel, is not only the most recognizable architectural landmark of Paris, but also a popular in the world.
The height of the tower 322 feet, including a TV antenna on it’s top.
Full metal construction weight over 10 tons. Eiffel Tower consists of 3 platforms that are squares formed with 4 columns. At 3 platform is a lighthouse with a dome, above which is an observation deck at a height of 274 meters.
At the tower can be reached in two ways: on the stairs, breaking 1792 degrees or by lift.
Now the tower is an observation deck which comes elevator (3 platform), which offers an amazing view of the city. These unique experiences and emotions must try all guests.
Simultaneously, the tower may be 10,400 people.
The Clock Tower of the Palace of Westminster - officially named Saint Stephen's Tower - is commonly known as the Big Ben. The tower is one of London's most famous landmarks.
The clock inside the tower was the world's largest when it was installed in the middle of the 19th century. The name Big Ben actually refers to the clock's hour bell, the largest of the clock's five bells. The other four are used as quarter bells.
There were two bells cast as the clock tower's hour bell. A first, 16 ton weighing bell was cast by John Warner and Sons in 1856. Since the Clock Tower was not yet completed, the bell was hung temporarily in the Palace Yard. The bell soon cracked so it was recast in 1858 in the Whitechapel Bell Foundry as a 13.5 ton bell. Unfortunately soon after this bell was placed in the belfry in July 1859, it cracked as well. This time, instead of yet again recasting the bell, the crack was repaired and a lighter hammer was used to prevent any more cracks.
The hour bell was probably named after Benjamin Hall, the First Commissioner of Works. Some sources however claim the bell was named after Benjamin Caunt, a British heavyweight boxing champion.
The clock was the largest in the world and is still the largest in Great-Britain. The clock faces have a diameter of almost 25ft (7.5m). The hour hand is 9ft or 2.7m long and the minute hand measures 14ft (4.25m) long. The clock is known for its reliability, it has rarely failed during its long life span. Even after the nearby House of Commons was destroyed by bombing during World War II, the clock kept on chiming. The clock's mechanism, designed by Edmund Beckett Denison, has a remarkable accuracy. The clock's rate is adjusted by simply adding small pennies on the shoulder of the pendulum.
The tower was constructed between 1843 and 1858 as the clock tower of the Palace of Westminster. The palace is now better known as the Houses of Parliament. The clock tower rises 316ft high (96m) and consists of a 200ft (61m) high brick shaft topped by a cast iron framed spire. The clock faces are 180ft / 55m above ground level.
Unfortunately the clock tower is not publicly accessible, but if you're looking for views over London the London Eye is currently the best option.
Acropolis of Athens in Greece
Acropolis (Greek Ακρόπολη Αθηνών) - Acropolis in Athens. This 56-meter high rocky hill with a flat top (approximately 300 meters long and 170 meters wide).
Acropolis of Athens is located on a natural limestone cliff, whose height is 156 meters above sea level, flat-topped (270-155 meters). The date of the first settlements in the Acropolis is 7.4 thousand BC, determined to found ceramic fragments.
Acropolis of Athens is one of the oldest monuments of Greece
In the XIII century. BC impregnable rock of the Acropolis of Athens strengthened with stone walls 5 meters thick. The construction of the fortifications attributed Cyclopes, creatures of supernatural forces. Part fortified walls survived and now.
Acropolis in ancient times was the center of political and military life. But first and foremost it was the residence of the ruler. And at the end of two thousand BC The Acropolis was the only cult place. Goddess Athena, owned by two ways:
• it - patroness forces of the earth, fertility, fertility (Poliada)
• it is - a militant defender of the city and Virgo (Pallas)
In geometric era, namely XX-XVIII centuries. BC, the cult of Athens took place in a small temple in the Acropolis, which was later reduced Erechtheion temple. According to mythology, the wooden image of Athena Zeus sent to earth, which fell directly on the Acropolis. What was installed on a high pedestal in the center of the Acropolis, Athens image was kind of connecting the entire architectural ensemble. Depicted in a luxurious helmet with a shield and spear, Athena was visible from afar, from the sea, so that the sun shone on the gold parts of the statue - the tip of the spear helmet.
During the reign of Pericles, proclaimed the unification of the Greek world under the leadership of Athens, 450 BC begin work on the creation of the ensemble on the Athens Acropolis on a single plan:
• Parthenon - temple of Athena Parthenos
• Propylaea - gate Gala
• Entrance to Acropolis
• Temple of Athena Nike (Victory wingless)
• Temple Erechtheion
• Statue of Athena Promahos
Planning and construction of the Acropolis was performed under the direction of Phidias.
And today in the Acropolis of Athens gets a lot of tourists to see the remains of one of the most famous and magnificent city that distant time.
Coliseum in Rome
Colisseum - amphitheater in Rome landmark Roman architecture. Originally built in 75-80 BC for fighting gladiators circus spectacle and more. The name "Colisseum" is derived from two words collies and eum, which are interpreted as "his hill" or "hill of Satan." In honor of the grand opening celebration Coliseum in Rome lasted 100 days in a row. The audience received gifts in the form of gold coins and sweets.
Coliseum Arena was oval elliptical shape, the axis of which is about 1156 and 188 m Height of external walls was 48 m in the Coliseum for the performances were able to observe simultaneously over 50 thousand spectators. Rows of spectators in the Roman amphitheater, unlike Greece, distributed by social status. To protect the public from rain and scorching sun on the scene pulled from the canvas tent that was assigned to the high mast. Arena had a wooden floor, which usually zasypalasya sand. The floor could fall and rise. Sometimes it is filled with water using a canal from the aqueduct, and then in the Coliseum were held naval battles with real ships. Gladiators - professional soldiers of slaves, prisoners or convicted criminals. They had to compete with each other or with wild beasts in the sight of the audience. In areas near the arena kept gladiators, predators and their victims. All gladiatorial weapons stored in a special arsenal (armamentarium) and published only in the days of games.
The first information about gladiator fights are to hold funeral games - ritual battles that were hosted on the graves to honor the dead. First gladiator fights were professionally organized in Rome in 264 BC Gladiators were trained in special schools. The greatest recognition came gladiator school that was founded by Julius Caesar and Emperor Nero. Last gladiator fights took place in 5. Then Christianity forbade these games zmahannya.Hladiatorski rozpochynalysya grand swing gladiators in the arena, then usually played out an imaginary duel, in which those who are fighting, showing only his agility and ability to fence as fighting "toy guns" (wood), then handed the arena of real guns, and the one who organized the games, check its quality. If not gladiator fell dead on the scene, but he was seriously injured, he could, throwing weapons, pick up finger of his left hand or the whole hand as a sign of mercy. Now the defeated gladiator life depended organizer games and more - from the audience. If a fighter like the audience, people waving handkerchiefs or lifted up your fingers. Gladiator who is not pleased the crowd, had to die. Viewers rotated thumbs down, shouting «iugula!» («Day") and the winner vsadzhuvav than throat loser. Winner Game rewarded palm branch with which he went about the arena. Besides this official awards gladiator received significant financial rewards, sometimes gladiator-winner covered with gold coins, and the audience loudly counted how many coins fell into the arena. Sometimes games winners received a gift houses and land.
At the present time, this monument Roman architecture is striking in its grandeur and state of preservation, although the time of its existence, it has repeatedly been subjected to various injuries. This giant building suffered from the effects of earthquakes, fires and floods. In the Coliseum several times fell lightning.
Charles Bridge (chesk. Karlův most) is the oldest bridge over the river Vltava in Czech capital city of Prague and the second antiquity bridge in the Czech Republic. In the Czech Republic, it was historically the fourth erected stone bridge.
Charles Bridge is built from sandstone slabs, its length - 520 m, width - 10 pm For more than six centuries of its existence the city was several times severely damaged by floods (in 1432, 1496, 1784 and 1890 respectively). Charles Bridge was built in the period from 1357 to 1380 years, and until 1841 it was the only stone bridge in Prague. It was built on the site of the Romanesque Judith Bridge Queen, built in 1170 and was destroyed by flooding in 1342.
The bridge was built by the King and Emperor Charles IV, and the first architect and builder was the famous architect Peter Parlerzh. This magnificent architect also built the bridge tower on the right bank of the Vltava River from Prague's Old Town and adorned it with his sculptural works. This tower, along with a bridge and two bridge towers on the left bank of the river form the ensemble Gothic architecture of exceptional beauty.
Construction of the Charles Bridge was commissioned renowned architect while Peter Palerzhu. To bridge stood for centuries, the architect decided to add mortar not only rocks and sand, but also raw eggs. The entire kingdom was issued about getting transported to Prague from all neighborhoods eggs.
Residents of the city Velvary distinguished: decided to cook the eggs so they do not split the road. Long time, then laughed over them all Czech citizens, remembering their wits.
Charles Bridge is decorated with 30 sculptures and sculptural groups and is an excellent sculpture gallery, the creation of which worked best sculptors of the Baroque era. Among them were FM Brokoff, MB Brown, MV Ekl, J. Call, J. Platser and others. However, the Charles Bridge was still decorated with sculptures, but they did not survive. The current sculptural decoration predominantly belong to the beginning of the XVIII century, when in 1704-14 years the bridge was installed 28 sculptures.
Some sculptures during floods were destroyed and had to replace them with new ones.
Of the thirty sculptures and sculptural groups that adorn the Charles Bridge, the two deserve special attention: the sculptural group of St. Luithardy, the works of Brown (1710) and St. statuary. John from Mathieu St. Felix and St.. John works Brokoffa MF (1714), which is known under the name "Turk on Charles Bridge."
Charles Bridge covered with dozens of legends, and historical facts. Being a popular attraction Czech capital and well-recognized facilities in the world at present it is often used in mass culture (movies, computer games, advertising, etc.).