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Is used to stress out:

Ø absence of quality

-a, -anti, -miss, -un

She unchained, unbolted and unlocked the door. It was there again, more clearly than before: the terrible expression of pain in her eyes; unblinking, unaccepting, unbelieving pain. We are overbrave and overfearful, overfriendly and at the same time frightened of strangers, we're oversentimental and realistic. . The precious twins - untried, unnoticed, undirected - and I say it quiet with my hands down undiscovered. Three million years ago something had passed this way, had left this unknown and perhaps unknowable symbol of its purpose, and had returned to the planets - or to the stars.

Ø unimportance smallness

-under, -ling, -ette



Mr. Hamilton, you havent any children, have you? Well, no. And Im sorry about that I guess. I am sorriest about that.

The girls could not take off their panama hats because this was not far from the school gates and hatlessness was an offence.

"You asked him."

"I'm un-asking him," the Boss replied.

Lucy wasn't Willie's luck. Or his unluck either.

She was waiting for something to happen or for everything to un-happen.


Syntactical expressive means and stylistic



Ø Grammatical (exclamatory and interrogative sentences)

Ø Emphatic He did come. I do know.

Ø Stylistic:

1) the object is placed at the beginning of the sentence (before the subject):

Talent Mr. Micawber has; Capital Mr. Micawber has not (D.) partial inversion.

2) the attribute is placed after the word it modifies. This model is often used when there is more than 1 attribute in the sentence:

With fingers weary and worn he stood in front of me (partial inversion).

3) the predicative is placed before the subject:

A good generous prayer it was (complete inversion).


4) the predicative is placed before the link-verb and both are placed before the subject:

Rude am I in my speech (complete inversion).

5) the adverbial (of manner and place) modifier is placed at the beginning of the sentence (partial inversion):

Eagerly I wished the morrow (E. Poe).

My dearest daughter, at your feet I fall (Dryden).

6) both the adverbial modifier and predicate are placed before the subject or the predicate is placed before the subject (complete inversion):

Out of the room came he.

Out came the chase - in went the horses - on sprang the boys -in got the travellers.




For once a friend of mine () took a ship from a certain port (with a toothbrush for all the luggage he had) and spent the whole year travelling around the world (women are fickle he said) and when a year later he landed at the selfsame port the first person waiving gaily to him from the shore was the little lady from whom he had fled.

His mouth was set grimly, and a nerve was twitching in his jaw he had every right to be furious but in his eyes all I could see was a sort of dreamy sadness.


1) the attribute, e.g.:

Get some more coffee for the love of Mike. Black and strong.

Very small and child-like, he never looked more than 14.

2) the apposition, e.g.:

Brave boy, he saved my life and shall not regret it.

You know her friends. These rich fellows;

Benny Collan, a respected guy, Benny Collan wants to marry her. An agent could ask for more?

3) the adverbial modifier, e.g.:

And my soul from out the shadow that lies floating on the floor shall be lifted never more! The white woman wore it. On her head.

She narrowed her eyes a trifle at me and said I looked exactly like Celia Briganza's boy. Around the mouth.

She was crazy about you. In the beginning.

4) the direct object, e.g.:

The book He decided to take

5) the prepositional object, e.g.:

It was indeed, to Forsyte eyes, an old house.

I paid it all out yesterday. To Corleoni.


parallel construction (or SYNTACTIC PARALLELISM)

When the lamp is shattered

The light in the dust lies dead.

When the cloud is scattered

The rainbows glory is shed.

When the lute is broken,

Sweet tones are remembered not.

When the lips have spoken

Love accents are soon forgot (P.B. Shelley).

I was a stranger, and you took me in; I was naked, and you clothed me; I was sick, and you visited me; I was in prison, and you came into me (St. Mattheu);

But they flattered him with their mouths; they lied to him with their tongues (Psalms 78:36);

We will not hide them from their children but tell to the coming generation the glorious deeds of the Lord (Psalms 78:4);


chiasmus (reversed parallel constructions)

Let the long contention cease: Geese are swans, and swans are geese.

Beauty is truth, truth is beauty (Keats);

But many that are the first shall be the last; and the last shall be the first. (St. Matthew);

"To think better of it," returned the gallant Blandois, "would be to slight a lady, to slight a lady would be to be deficient in chivalry towards the sex, and chivalry towards the sex is a part of my character."

Failure meant poverty, poverty meant squalor, squalor led, in the final stages, to the smells and stagnation of B. Inn Alley.

Down dropped the breeze,

The sails dropped down. (Coleridge)

In the days of old men made the manners;

Manners now make men. (Byron)

The loud-like rocks, the rock-like clouds

Dissolved in glory float. (Longfellow)

The sea is but another sky, The sky a sea as well (ibid)




( , , )


Swinging his cane (which he found to short) in his left hand (which he should have cut off long ago since it was constantly offending him), he began walking slowly down the avenue.

Of all my old association, of all my old pursuits and hopes, of all the living and the dead world, this one poor soul alone comes natural to me.

Know ye the land where the cypress and myrtle... Know ye the land of the cedar and vine...

'Tis the clime of the East - 'tis the land of the Sun.

'Mankind', says a Chinese manuscript, which my friend was obliging enough to read and explain to me, for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw'. (Ch. Lamb)


Date: 2015-12-24; view: 9777

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