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Exercise IV. Analyse the structure, the semantics and the functions of


9. The man stood there in the middle of the street with the deserted dawnlit boulevard telescoping out behind him. (..)vividness and elaboration of the created image

10. Leaving Daniel to his fate, she was conscious of joy springing in her heart. (A.B.)expressiveness

Exercise II. Indicate metonymies, state the type of relations between the object named and the object implied, which they represent, lso pay attention to the degree of their originality, and to their syntactical function:

1. He went about her room, after his introduction, looking at her pictures, her bronzes and clays, asking after the creator of this, the painter of that, where a third thing came from. (Dr.)

2. She wanted to have a lot of children, and she was glad that things were that way, that the Church approved. Then the little girl died. Nancy broke with Rome the day her baby died. It was a secret break, but no Catholic breaks with Rome casually. (J.O'H.)

3. "Evelyn Glasgow, get up out of that chair this minute." The girl looked up from her book. "What's the matter?"

"Your satin. The skirt'll be a mass of wrinkles in the back." (E. F.)

4. Except for a lack of youth, the guests had no common theme, they seemed strangers among strangers; indeed, each face, on entering, had straggled to conceal dismay at seeing others there. (T.C.)

5. She saw around her, clustered about the white tables, multitudes of violently red lips, powdered cheeks, cold, hard eyes, self-possessed arrogant faces, and insolent bosoms. (A.B.)

6. Dinah, a slim, fresh, pale eighteen, was pliant and yet fragile. (. .)

7. The man looked a rather old forty-five, for he was already going grey. (K. P.)

8. The delicatessen owner was a spry and jolly fifty. (T. R.)

9. "It was easier to assume a character without having to tell too many lies and you brought a fresh eye and mind to the job." (P.)

10. "Some remarkable pictures in this room, gentlemen. A Holbein, two Van Dycks and if I am not mistaken, a Velasquez. I am interested in pictures." (Ch.)

Exercise III. Analyse various cases of play on words, indicate which type is used, how it is created, what effect it adds to the utterance:

1. After a while and a cake he crept nervously to the door of the parlour. (A. T.) zeugma

2 There are two things I look for jn a man. A sympathetic character and full lips. (I.Sh.) zeugma

3. Dorothy, at my statement, had clapped her hand over her mouth to hold down laughter and chewing gum. (Jn.B.)

4. I believed all men were brothers; she thought all men were husbands. I gave the whole mess up. (Jn.B.) zeugma

5. In December, 1960, Naval Aviation News, a well-known special publication, explained why "a ship" is referred to as "she": Because there's always a bustle around her; because there's usually a gang of men with her; because she has waist and stays; because it takes a good man to handle her right; because she shows her topsides, hides her bottom and when coming into port, always heads for the buyos." (N.) zeugma

6. When I am dead, I hope it may be said:

"His sins were scarlet, but his books were read." (H. B.)

7. Most women up London nowadays seem to furnish their rooms with nothing but orchids, foreigners and French novels. (O.W.)

8. I'm full of poetry now. Rot and poetry. Rotten poetry. (H ) pun

9. "Bren, I'm not planning anything. I haven't planned a thing in three years... I'm - I'm not a planner. I'm a liver."

"I'm a pancreas," she said. "I'm a " and she kissed the absurd game away. (Ph. R.)

10. "Someone at the door," he said, blinking.

"Some four, I should say by the sound," said Fili. (A. T.) zeugma

Exercise IV. In the following excerpts you will find mainly examples of verbal irony. Explain what conditions made the realization of the opposite evaluation possible. Pay attention to the part of speech which is used in irony, also its syntactical function:

2. When the, war broke out she took down the signed photograph of the Kaiser and, with some solemnity, hung it in the men-servants' lavatory; it was her one combative action. (E.W.)

3. "I had a plot, a scheme, a little quiet piece of enjoyment afoot, of which the very cream and essence was that this old man and grandchild should be as poor as frozen rats," and Mr. Brass revealed the whole story, making himself out to be rather a saintlike holy character. (D.)

4. The lift held two people and rose slowly, groaning with diffidence. (I.M.)

5. England has been in a dreadful state for some weeks. Lord Coodle would go out. Sir Thomas Doodle wouldn't come in, and there being nobody in Great Britain (to speak of) except Coodle and Doodle, there has been no Government (D.)

6. From her earliest infancy Gertrude was brought up by her aunt. Her aunt had carefully instructed her to Christian principles. She had also taught her Mohammedanism, to make sure. (L.)

7. She's a charming middle-aged lady with a face like a bucket of mud and if she has washed her hair since Coolidge's second term, I'll eat my spare tire, rim and all. (R.Ch.)

8. With all the expressiveness of a stone Welsh stared at him another twenty seconds apparently hoping to see him gag. (R.Ch.)

9. "Well. It's shaping up into a lovely evening, isn't it?" "Great," he said.

"And if I may say so, you're doing everything to make it harder, you little sweet." (D. P.)

Exercise V. Analyse the following cases of antonomasia. State the type of meaning employed and implied; indicate what additional information is created by the use of antonomasia; pay attention to the morphological and semantic characteristics of common nouns used as proper names:

5. "Her mother is perfectly unbearable. Never met such a Gorgon." "I don't really know what a Gorgon is like, but I am quite sure, that

Lady Bracknell is one. In any case, she is a monster without being a myth."(O.W.)

6. Our secretary is Esther D'Eath. Her name is pronounced by vulgar relatives as Dearth, some of us pronounce it Deeth. (S. Ch.)

7. When Omar P. Quill died, his solicitors referred to him always as O.P.Q. Each reference to O.P.Q. made Roger think of his grandfather as the middle of the alphabet. (G. M.)

8. "Your fur and his Caddy are a perfect match. I respect history: don't you know that Detroit was founded by Sir Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, French fur trader." (J.O'H.)

9. Now let me introduce you - that's Mr. What's-his-name, you remember him, don't you? And over there in the corner, that's the Major, and there's Mr. What-d'you-call-him, and that's an American. (E.W.)

10. Cats and canaries had added to the already stale house an entirely new dimension of defeat. As I stepped down, an evil-looking Tom slid by us into the house. (W.G1.)

11. Kate kept him because she knew he would do anything in the world if he were paid to do it or was afraid not to do it. She had no illusions about him. In her business Joes were necessary. (J. St.)

12. In the moon-landing year what choice is there for Mr. and Mrs. Average-the program against poverty or the ambitious NASA project? (M.St.)

13. The next speaker was a tall gloomy man. Sir Something Somebody. (P.)

14. We sat down at a table with two girls in yellow and three men, each one introduced to us as Mr. Mumble. (Sc.F.)

15. She's been in a bedroom with one of the young Italians, Count Something. (I.Sh.)

Exercise VI. Discuss the structure and semantics of epithets in the following examples. Define the type and function of epithets:

4. He's a proud, haughty, consequential, turned-nosed peacock. (D.)

10. Her painful shoes slipped off. (U.)

11. She was a faded white rabbit of a woman. (A. C.)

12. And she still has that look, that don't-you-touch-me look, that women who-were beautiful carry with them to the grave. (J.B.)

13. Ten-thirty is a dark hour in a town where respectable doors are locked at nine. (T.C.)

14. He loved the after swim salt-and-sunshine smell of her hair. (Jn.B.)

15. I was to secretly record, with the help of a powerful long-range movie-camera lens, the walking-along-the-Battery-in-the-sunshine meeting between Ken and Jerry. (D.U.)

16. "Thief!" Pilon shouted. "Dirty pig of an untrue friend!" (J.St.)

17. She spent hausfrau afternoons hopping about in the sweatbox of her midget kitchen. (T.C.)

18. He acknowledged an early-afternoon customer with a be-with-you-in-a-minute nod. (D.U.)

19. He thoroughly disliked this never-far-from-tragic look of a ham Shakespearian actor. (H.)

20. "What a picture!" cried the ladies. "Oh! The lambs! Oh, the sweets! Oh, the ducks! Oh, the pets!" (K.M.)

Exercise VII. In the following examples concentrate on cases of hyperbole and understatement. Pay attention to their originality or stateness, to other SDs promoting their effect, to exact words containing the foregrounded emotive meaning:

1. I was scared to death when he entered the room. (S.)

2. The girls were dressed to kill. (J.Br.)

3. Newspapers are the organs of individual men who have jockeyed themselves to be party leaders, in countries where a new party is born every hour over a glass of beer in the nearest cafe. (J.R.)

4. I was violently sympathetic, as usual. (Jn.B.)

5. Four loudspeakers attached to the flagpole emitted a shattering roar of what Benjamin could hardly call music, as if it were played by a collection of brass bands, a few hundred fire engines, a thousand blacksmiths' hammers and the amplified reproduction of a force-twelve wind. (A. S.)

6. The car which picked me up on that particular guilty evening was a Cadillac limousine about seventy-three blocks long. (J.B.)

7. Her family is one aunt about a thousand years old. (Sc.F.)

8. He didn't appear like the same man; then he was all milk and honey - now he was all starch and vinegar. (D.)

9. She was a giant of a woman. Her bulging figure was encased in a green crepe dress and her feet overflowed in red shoes. She carried a mammoth red pocketbook that bulged throughout as if it were stuffed with rocks. (Fl. O'C.)

10. She was very much upset by the catastrophe that had befallen the Bishops, but it was exciting, and she was tickled to death to have someone fresh to whom she could tell all about it. (S.M.)

11. Babbitt's preparations for leaving the office to its feeble self during the hour and a half of his lunch-period were somewhat less elaborate than the plans for a general European War. (S.M.)

12. The little woman, for she was of pocket size, crossed her hands solemnly on her middle. (G.)

13. We danced on the handkerchief-big space between the speakeasy tables. (R.W.)

14. She wore a pink hat, the size of a button. (J.R.)

15. She was a sparrow of a woman. (Ph. L.)

16. And if either of us should lean toward the other, even a fraction of an inch, the balance would be upset. (O.W.)

17. He smiled back, breathing a memory of gin at me. (W.G.)

18. About a very small man in the Navy: this new sailor stood five feet nothing in sea boots. (Th.P.)

19. She busted herself in her midget kitchen. (T.C.)

20. The rain had thickened, fish could have swum through the air. (T.C.) hyperbole

Exercise VIII. In the following sentences pay attention to the structure and semantics of oxymorons. Also indicate which of their members conveys the individually viewed feature of the object and which one reflects its generally accepted characteristic:

1. He caught a ride home to the crowded loneliness of the barracks. (J.)

2. Sprinting towards the elevator he felt amazed at his own cowardly courage. (G. M.)

3. They were a bloody miserable lot - the miserablest lot of men I ever saw. But they were good to me. Bloody good. (J. St.)

4. He behaved pretty lousily to Jan. (D. C.)

5. Well might he perceive the hanging of her hair in fairest quantity in locks, some curled and some as if it were forgotten, with such a careless care and an art so hiding art that she seemed she would lay them for a pattern. (Ph. S.)

6. There were some bookcases of superbly unreadable books. (E. W.)

7. Absorbed as we were in the pleasures of travel and I in my modest pride at being the only examinee to cause a commotion - we were over the old Bridge. (W. G.)

8. "Heaven must be the hell of a place. Nothing but repentant sinners up there, isn't it?" (Sh. D.)

9. Harriet turned back across the dim garden. The lightless light looked down from the night sky. (I. M.)

10. Sara was a menace and a tonic, my best enemy; Rozzie was a disease, my worst friend. (J. Car.)

11. It was an open secret that Ray had been ripping his father-in-law off. (D. U.)

12. A neon sign reads "Welcome to Reno - the biggest little town in the world." (A. M.)

13. Huck Finn and Holden Caulfield are Good Bad Boys of American literature. (V.)

14. Haven't we here the young middle-aged woman who cannot quite compete with the paid models in the fashion magazine but who yet catches our eye? (Jn. H.)

15. Their bitter-sweet union did not last long. (A. C.)

16. He was sure the whites could detect his adoring hatred of them. (Wr.)

17. You have got two beautiful bad examples for parents. (Sc. F.)

18. He opened up a wooden garage. The doors creaked. The garage was full of nothing. (R. Ch.)

19. She was a damned nice woman, too. (H.)

20. A very likeable young man with a pleasantly ugly face. (A. C.)

Exercise II. From the following examples you will get a better idea of the functions of various types of repetition, and also of parallelism and chiasmus:

1. I wake up and I'm alone and I walk round Warley and I'm alone; and I talk with people and I'm alone and I look at his face when I'm home and it's dead. (J. Br.) parallelism

2. Babbitt was virtuous. He advocated, though he did not practice, the prohibition of alcohol; he praised, though he did not obey, the laws against motor-speeding. (S. L.) parallelism

3. "To think better of it," returned the gallant Blandois, "would be to slight a lady, to slight a lady would be to be deficient in chivalry towards the sex, and chivalry towards the sex is a part of my character." (D.) chiasmus

4. Halfway along the righthand side of the dark brown hall was a dark brown door with a dark brown settie beside it. After I had put my hat, my gloves, my muffler and my coat on the settie we three went through the dark brown door into a darkness without any brown in it. (W. G.) chiasmus

5. I might as well, face facts: good-bye, Susan, good-bye a big car, good-bye a big house, good-bye power, good-bye the silly handsome dreams. (J.Br.) parallelism

6. I really don't see anything romantic in proposing. It is very romantic to be in love. But there is nothing romantic about a definite proposal. (O. W.) chiasmus

7. wanted to knock over the table and hit him until my arm had no more strength in it, then give him the boot, give him the boot, give him the boot I drew a deep breath. (J. Br.) Parallelism

8. On her father's being groundlessly suspected, she felt sure. Sure. Sure. (D.) repetition in the end

9. Now he understood. He understood many things. One can be a person first. A man first and then a black man or a white man. (P. A.)

10. She stopped, and seemed to catch the distant sound of knocking. Abandoning the traveller, she hurried towards the parlour, in the passage she assuredly did hear knocking, angry and impatient knocking, the knocking of someone who thinks he has knocked too long. (A. B.)

11. Obviously - this is a streptococcal infection. Obviously. (W. D.)

12. And a great desire for peace, peace of no matter what kind, swept through her. (A. B.)

13. When he blinks, a parrot-like look appears, the look of some heavily blinking tropical bird. (A. M.)

14. And everywhere were people. People going into gates and coming out of gates. People staggering and falling. People fighting and cursing. (P. A.)

15. Then there was something between them. There was. There was. (Dr.)

16. He ran away from the battle. He was an ordinary human being that didn't want to kill or be killed. So he ran away from the battle. (St. H.)

Exercise III. Find and analyse cases of detachment, suspense and inversion. Comment on the structure and functions of each:

1. She narrowed her eyes a trifle at me and said I looked exactly like Celia Braganzas boy. Around the mouth. (S.)

2. He observes it all with a keen quick glance, not unkindly, and full rather of amusement than of censure. (V. W.) suspense

3. She was crazy about you. In the beginning. (R. W.)

4. How many pictures of new journeys over pleasant country, of resting places under the free broad sky, of rambles in the fields and woods, and paths not often trodden - how many tones of that one well-remembered voice, how many glimpses of the form, the fluttering dress, the hair that waved so gaily in the wind - how many visions of what had been and what he hoped was yet to be rose up before him in the old, dull, silent church! (D.)detachment

5. It was not the monotonous days uncheckered by variety and uncheered by pleasant companionship, it was not the dark dreary evenings or the long solitary nights, it was not the absence of every slight and easy pleasure for which young hearts beat high or the knowing nothing of childhood but its weakness and its easily wounded spirit, that had wrung such tears from Nell. (D.) suspense

6. Of all my old association, of all my old pursuits and hopes, of all the living and the dead world, this one poor soul alone comes natural to me. (D.) suspense

7. Corruption could not spread with so much success, though reduced into a system, and though some ministers, with equal impudence and folly, avowed it by themselves and their advocates, to be the principal expedient by which they governed; if a long and almost unobserved progression of causes and effects did not prepare the conjuncture. (Bol.) detachment

8. I have been accused of bad taste. This has disturbed me not much for my own sake (since I am used to the slights and arrows of outrageous fortune) as for the sake of criticism in general. (S. M.) detachment

9. On, on he wandered, night and day, beneath the blazing sun, and the cold pale moon; through the dry heat of noon, and the damp cold of night; in the grey light of morn, and the red glare of eve. (D.)

10. Benny Collan, a respected guy, Benny Collan wants to marry her. An agent could ask for more? (. C.) suspense

11. Women are not made for attack. Wait they must. (J.C.) inversion

12. Out came the chase-in went the horses - on sprang the boys - in got the travellers. (D.) inversion

13. Then he said: "You think it's so? She was mixed up in this lousy business? (J. B.) suspense

14. And she saw that Gopher Prairie was merely an enlargement of all the hamlets which they had been passing. Only to the eyes of a Kennicot was it exceptional. (S. L.) detachment

Exercise I. Discuss the semantic centres and structural peculiarities of antithesis:

1. Mrs. Nork had a large home and a small husband.(S.L.)

2. Don't use big words. They mean so little. (O. W.)

3. 1 like big parties. They're so intimate. At small parties there isn't any privacy. (Sc. F.)

4. There is Mr. Guppy, who was at first as open as the sun at noon, but who suddenly shut up as close as midnight. (D.)

5. Such a scene as there was when Kit came in! Such

a confusion of tongues, before the circumstances were related,

and the proofs disclosed! Such a dead silence when all was

told! (D.)

6. Rup wished he could be swift, accurate, compassionate

and stern instead of clumsy and vague and sentimental. (I. M.)

7. His coat-sleeves being a great deal too long, and his

trousers a great deal too short, he appeared ill at ease in

his clothes. (D.)

8. There was something eery about the apartment house,

an unearthly quiet that was a combination of overcarpeting

and underoccupancy. (H. St.)

9. It is safer to be married to the man you can be

happy with than to the man you cannot be happy without.



10. Then came running down stairs a gentleman with

whiskers, out of breath. (D.)

11. It was the best of times, it was the worst of times,

it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness,

it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity,

it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness,

it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair; we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way - in short the period was so far like the present period, that some of its noisiest authorities insisted on its being received for good or for evil, in the superlative degree of comparison only. (D.)

Exercise II. Indicate the type of climax. Pay attention to its structure and the semantics of its components:

1. He saw clearly that the best thing was a cover story

or camouflage. As he wondered and wondered what to do,

he first rejected a stop as impossible, then as improbable,

then as quite dreadful. (W. G.)

2. "Is it shark?" said Brody. The possibility that he at

last was going to confront the fish - the beast, the monster,

the nightmare - made Brady's heart pound. (P. B.)

3. If he had got into the gubernatorial primary on his

own hook, he would have taken a realistic view. But this

was different. He had been called. He had been touched. He had been summoned. (R. W.)

4. We were all in all to one another, it was the morning

of life, it was bliss, it was frenzy, it was everything else

of that sort in the highest degree. (D.)

5. Like a well, like a vault, like a tomb, the prison had

no knowledge of the brightness outside. (D.)

6. "I shall be sorry, I shall be truly sorry to leave you, my friend." (D.)

7. "Of course it's important. Incredibly, urgently, desperately important." (D. S.)

8. "I never told you about that letter Jane Crofut got from her minister when she was sick. He wrote Jane a letter and on the envelope the address was like this: Jane Crofut; the Crofut Farm; Graver's Corners; Sutton County; New Hampshire; United States of America." "What's funny about it?" "But listen, it's not finished: the United States of America;

Continent of North America; Western Hemisphere; the Earth;

the Solar System; the Universe; the Mind of God - that's what it said on the envelope." (Th. W.)

9. "You have heard of Jefferson Brick, I see, Sir," quoth

the Colonel with a smile. "England has heard of Jefferson

Brick. Europe has heard of Jefferson Brick." (D.)

Exercise III. Discuss the following cases of simile. Pay attention to the semantics of the tenor and the vehicle, to the brief or sustained manner of their presentation. Indicate the foundation of the simile, both explicit and implicit Find examples of disguised similes, do not miss the link word joining the two parts of the structure:

1. The menu was rather less than a panorama, indeed, it was as repetitious as a snore. (O. N.)

2. The topic of the Younger Generation spread through the company like a yawn. (E. W.)

3. Penny-in-the-slot machines stood there like so many vacant faces, their dials glowing and flickering - for nobody.


4. As wet as a fish - as dry as a bone;

As live as a bird - as dead as a stone;

As plump as a partridge - as crafty as a rat; As strong as a horse - as weak as a cat;

As hard as a flint - as soft as a mole;

As white as a lily - as black as coal;

As plain as a pike - as rough as a bear;

As tight as a drum - as free as the air;

As heavy as lead - as light as a feather;

As steady as time - uncertain as weather; As hot as an oven - as cold as a frog;

As gay as a lark - as sick as a dog;

As savage as a tiger - as mild as a dove;

As stiff as a poker-as limp as a glove;

As blind as a bat-as deaf as a post;

As cool as a cucumber - as warm as toast; As flat as a flounder - as round as a ball; As blunt as a hammer-as sharp as an awl;


As brittle as glass - as tough as gristle;

As neat as a pin - as clean as a whistle;

As red as a rose - as square as a box. (O. N.)

5. She has always been as live as a bird. (R. Ch.)

6. She was obstinate as a mule, always had been, from

a child. (G.)

7. Children! Breakfast is just as good as any other meal

and I won't have you gobbling like wolves. (Th. W.)

8. Six o'clock still found him in indecision. He had had

no appetite for lunch and the muscles of his stomach fluttered

as though a flock of sparrows was beating their wings against

his insides. (Wr.)

9. And the cat, released, leaped and perched on her

shoulder: his tail swinging like a baton, conducting rhapsodic

music. (. .)


10. He felt that his presence must, like a single drop of

some stain, tincture the crystal liquid that was absolutely

herself. (R. W.)

Exercise IV. Analyse the structure, the semantics and the functions of


1. "To be a good actress, she must always work for the truth in what she's playing," the man said in a voice not empty of selflove. (N. M.)

2. "Yeah, what the hell," Anne said and looking at me,

gave that not unsour smile. (R. W.)

3. It was not unnatural if Gilbert felt a certain embarrass-

ment. (E. W.)

4. The idea was not totally erroneous. The thought did

not displease me. (I. M.)

5. I was quiet, but not uncommunicative; reserved, but

not reclusive; energetic at times, but seldom enthusiastic.

(Jn. B.)

6. He had all the confidence in the world, and not

without reason. (J. O'H.)

7. Kirsten said not without dignity: "Too much talking

is unwise." (Ch.)

8. "No, I've had a profession and then a firm to cherish,"

said Ravenstreet, not without bitterness. (P.)

9. I felt I wouldn't say "no" to a cup of tea. (. .)


10. I wouldn't say "no" to going to the movies. (E. W.)

11. "I don't think you've been too miserable, my dear." (P.)

12. Still two weeks of success is definitely not nothing

and phone calls were coming in from agents for a week.

(Ph. R.)

Exercise V. Analyse the given periphrases from the viewpoint of their semantic type, structure, function and originality:

1. Gargantuan soldier named Dahoud picked Ploy by the

head and scrutinized this convulsion of dungarees and despair

whose feet thrashed a yard above the deck. (Th. P.)

2. His face was red, the back of his neck overflowed

his collar and there had recently been published a second

edition of his chin. (P. G. W.)

3. His huge leather chairs were kind to the femurs. (R. W.)

4. "But Pickwick, gentlemen, Pickwick, this ruthless destroyer

of this domestic oasis in the desert of Goswell street!" (D.)

5. He would make some money and then he would come

back and marry his dream from Blackwood. (Dr.)

6. The villages were full of women who did nothing

but fight against dirt and hunger and repair the effects of

friction on clothes. (A. B.)

7. The habit of saluting the dawn with a bend of the elbow

was a hangover from college fraternity days. (Jn. B.)

8. I took my obedient feet away from him. (W. G.)

9. I got away on my hot adolescent feet as quickly as

I could. (W. G.)


10. I am thinking an unmentionable thing about your

mother. (I. Sh.)

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