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Informal Techniques

  • Written reflections.Sometimes referred to as "Minute Papers" or "Muddiest Points," these popular assessment techniques have students reflect immediately following a learning opportunity (e.g., at the end of a class or after completing an out-of-class activity) to answer one or two basic questions like:
    • “What was the most important thing you learned today?”
    • “What was the most confusing topic today?”
    • “What important question remains unanswered?”
  • Polls/Surveys.Data on student opinions, attitudes, behaviors or confidence in understanding can be gathered either during class (e.g., with a classroom response system) or outside of class.
  • Checks for Understanding.Pausing every few minutes to see whether students are following along with the lesson not only identifies gaps in comprehension, but helps break up lectures or online lessons (e.g., with embedded quiz questions) into more digestible bites.
  • Wrappers."Wrapping" activities, using a set of reflective questions, can help students develop skills to monitor their own learning and adapt as necessary.
    • ExamWrappers include questions about preparation strategies, surprises, remaining questions, study goals for the next unit, and so on.
    • Homework Wrappers include questions about students' confidence in applying their knowledge and skills both before and after completing an assignment.
    • Lecture Wrappers include questions at the beginning of class about what students anticipate getting out of a lesson and/or questions at the end of class about the key points of the lesson.
    • Formal Techniques
  • In-class activities.Having students work in pairs or small groups to solve problems creates space for powerful peer-to-peer learning and rich class discussion.
  • Quizzes. Gauge students’ prior knowledge, assess progress midway through a unit, create friendly in-class competition, review before the test -- quizzes can be great tools that don't have to count heavily toward students' grades.
  • Online assessment. Many online learning modules have built-in assessments where students solve problems or answer questions along the way.
  • Class Deliverables.In-class activities are designed so students, usually in groups, are required to submit a product of their work for a grade.
  • Summative (High-Stakes) Assessments:
  • Exams. This includes mid-term exams, final exams, and tests at the end of course units.
  • Papers, projects, and presentations. These give students the chance to go deeper with the material to put the knowledge they’ve acquired to use or create something new from it.
  • Portfolios. Submitting a portfolio at the end of a course can be a powerful way for students to see the progress they’ve made.

The article

An article is a word that is used before a noun to show whether the noun refers to something specific or not. A, an and the are articles.

"I need a chair."

"I want an apple."

"I want the red apple."

Ticket ¹19

Memory



Diagram by Luke MastinWhat we usually think of as “memory” in day-to-day usage is actually long-term memory, but there are also important short-term and sensory memory processes, which must be worked through before a long-term memory can be established. The different types of memory each have their own particular mode of operation, but they all cooperate in the process of memorization, and can be seen as three necessary steps in forming a lasting memory. Types of memorySensory Memory;Short-Term (Working) Memory;Long-Term Memory;Declarative (Explicit) and Procedural (Implicit) Memory;Episodic and Semantic Memory; Retrospective and Prospective Memory Sensory memory is the shortest-term element of memory. It is the ability to retain impressions of sensory information after the original stimuli have ended. It acts as a kind of buffer for stimuli received through the five senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch, which are retained accurately, but very briefly. For example, the ability to look at something and remember what it looked like with just a second of observation is an example of sensory memory.

Short-term memory acts as a kind of “scratch-pad” for temporary recall of the information which is being processed at any point in time, and has been refered to as "the brain's Post-it note". It can be thought of as the ability to remember and process information at the same time. It holds a small amount of information (typically around 7 items or even less) in mind in an active, readily-available state for a short period of time (typically from 10 to 15 seconds, or sometimes up to a minute). Long-term memory is, obviously enough, intended for storage of information over a long period of time. Despite our everyday impressions of forgetting, it seems likely that long-term memory actually decays very little over time, and can store a seemingly unlimited amount of information almost indefinitely. Indeed, there is some debate as to whether we actually ever “forget” anything at all, or whether it just becomes increasingly difficult to access or retrieve certain items from memory.Long-term memory is often divided into two further main types: explicit (or declarative) memory and implicit (or procedural) memory.

Declarative memory (“knowing what”) is memory of facts and events, and refers to those memories that can be consciously recalled (or "declared"). It is sometimes called explicit memory, since it consists of information that is explicitly stored and retrieved, although it is more properly a subset of explicit memory. Declarative memory can be further sub-divided into episodic memory and semantic memory.

Procedural memory (“knowing how”) is the unconscious memory of skills and how to do things, particularly the use of objects or movements of the body, such as tying a shoelace, playing a guitar or riding a bike. These memories are typically acquired through repetition and practice, and are composed of automatic sensorimotor behaviours that are so deeply embedded that we are no longer aware of them. Once learned, these "body memories" allow us to carry out ordinary motor actions more or less automatically. Procedural memory is sometimes referred to as implicit memory, because previous experiences aid in the performance of a task without explicit and conscious awareness of these previous experiences, although it is more properly a subset of implicit memory. Declarative memory can be further sub-divided into episodic memory and semantic memory.

Episodic memory represents our memory of experiences and specific events in time in a serial form, from which we can reconstruct the actual events that took place at any given point in our lives. It is the memory of autobiographical events (times, places, associated emotions and other contextual knowledge) that can be explicitly stated. Individuals tend to see themselves as actors in these events, and the emotional charge and the entire context surrounding an event is usually part of the memory, not just the bare facts of the event itself. ALMAT311 Semantic memory, on the other hand, is a more structured record of facts, meanings, concepts and knowledge about the external world that we have acquired. It refers to general factual knowledge, shared with others and independent of personal experience and of the spatial/temporal context in which it was acquired. Semantic memories may once have had a personal context, but now stand alone as simple knowledge. It therefore includes such things as types of food, capital cities, social customs, functions of objects, vocabulary, understanding of mathematics, etc. Much of semantic memory is abstract and relational and is associated with the meaning of verbal symbols.

Retrospective memory is where the content to be remembered (people, words, events, etc) is in the past, i.e. the recollection of past episodes. It includes semantic, episodic and autobiographical memory, and declarative memory in general, although it can be either explicit or implicit.

Prospective memory is where the content is to be remembered in the future, and may be defined as “remembering to remember” or remembering to perform an intended action.


Date: 2015-12-24; view: 521


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