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ocal. These are called harmonics.

4. What effect do the resonance characteristics of the vocal tract have on the frequency spectrum of vocal cord harmonics? The vocal cord vibrations create a set of frequencies that resonate through the vocal tract. Initially, there is a fairly uniform slope to the strength of the harmonics, but as the lengths of areas of the vocal tract reinforce or dampen the wavelengths of the harmonics, peaks and troughs develop in the frequency spectrum.

5. What is a formant? The strongest frequencies or the peaks of the harmonics

6. Which formant relates to vowel height (closeness)? a. F0 b. F1 c. F2 d. F3

7. Would the value of F2 for back vowels be smaller of greater than for front vowels? Would

8. A low F1 indicates a. close b. open c neither d. both

9. What is the unit of measurement for frequency and its abbreviation? for frequency Hertz (Hz)

10.What is the unit of measurement (and abbrev.) for amplitude? for amplitude, decibels (dB)


Test yourself #2

1. The main part of a syllable is the nucleus

2. The beginning of a syllable is the a. onset b. coda c. rhyme d. none of these

3. Besides its segments (phones) an English syllable has duration and a. pitch b. tone c. intonation d. quality

4. Yes-no questions are signaled by a. falling intonation b. rising intonation.

5. Tonic syllables are marked by a. & b. % c. * d. #

6. Unstressed vowels are always a. front b. back c. central

7. Stress is marked by a greater degree of a. tongue movement b. pitch c. neither d. both a and b.

8. English is a a. stress-timed language b. event-timed c. untimed d. tone-timed.

9. The equivalent ease of articulation mechanism in Kazakh to stress in English is a. tone b. pitch-timing c. vowel harmony d. laxness

10. The principle that balances ease of articulation is a. sufficient perceptual separation b.

tenseness c. vowel harmony d. rhyme


Test Yourself #3

1. In English, all segments (phones) have the feature Voicing. True False

2. A segments with the feature + Syllabic could function as a syllable a. onset b. nucleus c. coda

3. The feature Tense applies to a. plosives b. vowels c. syllables d. tone groups

4. [Approximant] is an option for which feature: a. Stricture b. voicing c. Tense d. Lax

5. Features are the most general system for categorizing phonetic objects. True False

6. What is phonotactics? a. permissible sequences of phonemes b. permissible sequences of variants c. sequences of rules d. rhetorical tactics

7. The intervocalic tap rule would be written as: a. [t]  [ɾ]/V_V b. [t]  [Ɂ]/V_V.

8. Contextual features determine the set of a. phonemes b. allophones c. variants d. phones.

9. Phonemic transcriptions are placed within a. // b. [] c. {} d. \\

10.Features may apply to a segment or suprasegmentally. True False


Test Yourself #4

1. The ear is divided into a. three sections b. two sections c. four sections

2. What is the function of the Organ of Corti? a. sound transmission b. frequency separation c. speech articulation

3. Aphasias are losses of skills due to: a. ear injury b. brain injury c. laziness

4. What is the problem with matching speech segments to phonemes? a. aphasias b. noise c. coarticulation

5. According to the motor theory invariant segments can be found in a. motor nerve patterns b. acoustic cues c. neither

6. The direct realist theory differs from the motor theory in that a. vocal tract configurations are matched b. general sound perception abilities are used c. both a and b

7. The general approach is not a theory because it does not have testable predictions. True False

8. Gradually changing voice onset time will result in a. gradual changes in perceptions b. sharp changes at a boundary point c. neither

9. While vowels can be distinguished non-categorically they are categorically assigned to certain phonemes based on first language acquisition. True False

10. Minimal pairs cannot be used to train second-language learners to make new phonemic classifications. True False

Test Yourself #5

Test Yourself

1. Phonology is defined as the study of the sound structure of units within a particular language. T F

2. Feature geometry is noted for its analysis of a. stress as prominence b. rules as constrained c. features in hierarchical trees

3. The Prague school included a. Jakobson b. Clements c. Chomsky d. Zampini

4. The phoneme concept was first used in its modern sense by a. Chomsky b. de Courtenay c. de Saussure d. Trubetzkoy

5. Which is most abstract in terms of contrasts a. idiophone b. allophone c. phoneme d. archiphoneme


Date: 2015-12-24; view: 752

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