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a) You are going to write a description of a place that you have visited on holiday recently. Think of a place you have been to.

 

b) Look at the list of topics below. Tick (Ö) the topics that you think it is necessary to include (because they give essential information). Put a star (*) next to the topics that you think would be interesting to someone who is thinking of visiting this place.

What is it called?

Where is it?

How do you get there?

Are there any interesting facts about this place (eg size, population, history)?

Is it famous or popular? Why or why not?

When did you go there?

What time of the year is it best to visit?

What is the weather usually like?

Why did you go there?

What can people do there?

Is there anything to do in the evening?

Are there interesting places to visit nearby?

What kind of scenery or buildings do you find there?

What are the people like?

Are there any interesting places to eat or drink?

Are there any interesting traditions or festivals?

How did you feel about your visit?

What advice would you give to someone who is going to visit this place?

 

C) Now write a description of the place you visited. Remember that the person who will read your description is thinking about going there too.

Give a summary of the given text.

TRANSPORTATION

Transportation, movement of people and goods from one location to another. Throughout history, the economic wealth and military power of a people or a nation have been closely tied to efficient methods of transportation. Transportation provides access to natural resources and promotes trade, allowing a nation to accumulate wealth and power. Transportation also allows the movement of soldiers, equipment, and supplies so that a nation can wage war.

Transportation systems and the routes they use have greatly influenced both how and where people live. Reliable transportation allows a population to expand throughout a country’s territory and to live comfortably in remote areas far from factories and farms. The growth and expansion of the United States were directly related to the means of transportation available at the time. The more compact cities of the U.S. eastern seaboard are the result of early human- and animal-based transportation systems that allowed only short trips. The more sprawling cities of the western United States are the result of an automobile-based transportation system that permits much longer travel distances.

Transportation is vital to a nation’s economy. Reducing the costs of transporting natural resources to production sites and moving finished goods to markets is one of the key factors in economic competition. The transportation industry is the largest industry in the world. It includes the manufacture and distribution of vehicles, the production and distribution of fuel, and the provision of transportation services. In the 1990s, approximately 11 percent of the U.S. gross domestic product and an estimated 10 percent of all jobs in the United States were related to the transportation industry.



The same transportation systems that link a nation can also be used in the nation’s war efforts. The rapid movement of troops, equipment, and supplies can be a deciding factor in winning a battle or a war. Just as mobilizing a nation’s military strength is critical to success, disabling an enemy’s transportation system is usually an early strategic objective of any armed conflict.

In the later 20th century, people became more aware of how transportation systems affect the environment. For example, the burning of petroleum-based fuels for motor vehicles creates pollution that can be harmful to human health. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that three-quarters of all carbon monoxide and one-half of all oxides of nitrogen come from motor vehicles. In addition, petroleum-based transportation is responsible for approximately one-third of carbon dioxide emissions in the United States, an important contributor to global warming. Transportation accounts for 66 percent of total U.S. oil consumption. Other environmental effects of transportation systems include impacts on noise levels, water quality, hazardous materials, natural habitats, and wetlands. Many governments now require that before a new transportation project is begun a detailed study called an environmental impact statement must be prepared to anticipate how the project will affect the environment.

Recent innovations in technology have been driven by a desire to find safer, faster, and more reliable means of getting from place to place. For passenger transportation, speed and convenience are primary goals. For freight transportation, speed, reliability, and efficiency, or carrying more cargo for less money and arriving on time, have been the motivating factors.

Several technologies that are shaping society in a variety of ways will likely characterize the future of transportation. Intelligent transportation systems apply the latest advances in computers and electronics to better control vehicle operations. Computerized road maps used with the Global Positioning System (GPS) help drivers to navigate. Companies that use fleets of vehicles, such as delivery companies, can use satellite technology to monitor the location of their vehicles at all times and improve efficiency.

Research is also being conducted into improving the materials used for transportation vehicles and infrastructure. Composite material, which is a hybrid consisting of many different component materials, can provide lightweight, extremely strong, and highly durable material for vehicle construction. With the lighter weight, vehicles can become more fuel efficient. New materials for pavements and bridges will also provide for stronger and longer-lasting infrastructure.

Fuels and propulsion technology are other important areas of research and innovation. Most modern transportation systems rely on petroleum for energy, but this source of energy is finite and creates serious environmental effects when used in the internal-combustion engine. Research into alternative fuel sources, such as electrical storage, natural gas, methanol, ethanol, fuel cells, and solar energy, will continue in order to ensure a reliable supply of energy for the transportation systems of the world. Several new forms of propulsion are also being investigated. For example, magnetically levitated trains, in which magnetic forces lift, propel, and guide a vehicle over a guideway, are being developed in Germany and Japan. Such trains have achieved speeds up to 500 km/h (300 mph).

(from Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2003. )

 


Date: 2015-12-24; view: 833


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