The use of articles with proper nouns
| Geographical names
|| No article
|| The definite article
| 1. Continents, countries, cities/towns, villages
|| Africa, Asia, France, London, Latin America, Central Asia, Petrovka
the village of Petrovka
|| When having a particularizing attribute
The Philadelphiahe was born in...
In his books W. Scott described the England of the Middle Ages.
|| the word groups are always used with the:
The United States, The Soviet Union, The United Kingdom of Great Britain, the Hague, (the) Ukraine, the Crimea, the Caucasus, the Riviera, the Transvaal, the Lebanon, the Congo
| 2. Ocean, rivers, seas, Channels / canals, deserts, valleys
|| Hudson Bay, Buffin Bay, Death Valley, Silicon Valley
|| the Pacific, the Black Sea, the Neva, the Sahara, the (English) Channel, the Suez Canal, the Nile Valley, the Valley of the Kings
| 3. Lakes
|| Lake Baikal, Lake Ontario
|| the Baikal, the Ontario, the Great Lake, the Great Bear Lake, the Great Salt Lake
|| In the plural The Great Lakes
| 4. Mountains, volcanoes
|| mountain chains
the Urals, the Alps, the Kilauea Volcano
| 5. Islands, peninsulas, capes
|| a single island
Madagascar, Sicily, Kamchatka, Cape Horn, North Cape, Cape Canaveral,
|| island groups
the Bermudas, the British Isles, the Bahamas, the Balkan Peninsula, the Cape of Good Hope
| 6. Regions
|| North America, Latin America
|| the Middle East, the Far East, the north of England, the south of France, the Virgin Lands, the Yorkshire Forests
|| western Canada, southern Spain
| 7. Four cardinal points of the compass
|| the South, the North, the East, the West
from East to West, from North to South
go to South!
Names of persons
| Names of persons
|| No article
|| The definite article
|| The indefinite article
| 1. Names of persons
|| a) as a rule no article is used
There was a letter from Susan inviting me to a party.
b) modified be attributes old, young, little, dear, poor, honest, lazy, simple, lucky
Young Jolyon was standing by the piano.
She is a widow of poor George.
|| a) with a name in the plural to indicate the whole family:
He is very different from the rest of the Kents.
b) with the name modified by a particularizing attribute:
Is he the Sheldon who is a write?
She was no more the Juliaof the first years of their marriage.
With a name modified by a descriptive attribute when a) the limitation is clear from the context or situation:
He caught the paralyzed Madeleinein his arms as the door flew open again.
b) the attribute indicate s a permanent quality of the person in question:
He slapped him on the shoulder, which startled & slightly annoyed the prim George Augustus.
|| a) one member of a family:
I have often wondered if Tim was really a Burton.
b) when names of persons indicate typical features of a well-known name: She felt like an Alice in Wonderland.
c) when nothing is known about the person except their name, and with names of persons modified by the adjective certain:
I heard it from a (certain) Mr. Jagger.
| 2. Nouns of relationship
|| a) followed by a proper name:
Uncle Jolyon, Aunt Polly
b) not followed by a proper name and used only by the members of the family:
She went into the hall: Is Mother back?
|| a) if other peoples relations are meant:
The son was as clever as the father.
b) the expressions:
Lomonosov was the son of a fisherman.
Becky was the daughter of an artist.
| 3. Nouns denoting ranks, titles, professionfollowed by a proper name
|| academician Brown, professor Burton, count Brown
|| Nouns denoting profession & occupation followed by a proper name:
The painter Warhol left many fine pictures.
The shoemaker Brown is very old.
|| A foreign title followed by a proper name
The Baron Munchausen, the Emperor Napoleon III, the Tsar peter the Great
Date: 2015-12-24; view: 1083