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Now complete the following texts with the above phrases. Use each phrase once in the past tense. Write one word in each gap.

1 In Court 1, the Police Prosecutor accused Mary Philips …… disorderly

behaviour. A number of witnesses were called to give evidence. Finally,

the magistrate decided that Philips …… the charge but did not ……

her …… prison. Instead, he …… her …… her behaviour.

2 In Court 2, John Peters …… his employer. He …… a serious injury at work.

The judge decided that his employer …… the injury and ruled that Peters

…… substantial damages.


Most words ending in -ly are adverbs. However there are some adjectives ending in -ly, like disorderly.


 

 

Task 13. Use the clues on the left to complete the words on the right.

1 a country’s body of judges J … DIC … ARY

2 senior official in a court of law … U … … E

3 system of laws which evolved from the tribal and local laws in England C … M … … … L … …

4 system of laws which evolved in the 8th century BC R ...M … A …

5 the branch of law dealing with crime C … I … … …A … L … …

6 person who institutes a criminal case P … … S … C … T … …

7 person who makes a claim in a civil case … L … … N … I … F

8 the defendant normally pays this to the plaintiff … … M … G … S

9 panel of 12 people who decide whether the accused committed a crime

… … … Y

10 lawyer who presents a case to a higher court … … R … I … T … R

11 lawyer who advises clients … O … I … … T … R

12 untrained lawyer who presides over the lowest criminal court

… A … S … R … T …

13 person against whom a civil case is brought D … … E … D … … T

14 an act passed by a law-making body … G … S … A … I …

15 the control resulting from following a community's system of rules A … … H … R … … …

16 'apprenticeship' served by trainee barristers P … … I … L … … G ...

17 becoming an assistant to a practising barrister T … A … … Y

18 court which hears appeals from the Court of Appeal

H … … … E … F L … … … S

 

Task 14. Discuss the following questions with your groupmate.

1. Have you seen scenes of American courtrooms in movies or on TV?

2. Do you think they realistically depict what happens in courtrooms?

3. How are courtrooms different in your country?

 

Task 15.Read through the sentences, trying to imagine which words would fit in the blanks. Then listen to a dictation of the full sentences, and write the missing words in the blanks.

 

1. The average person in the legal profession would probably say it's better to let a dozen ................... people go free than to punish one innocent person .................................. .

2. The guiding principle for the U.S. Legal system is that an accused person is ................... .

3. Under civil law the judge consults a complex ................................... t๎ decide whether the defendant is guilty and, if so, what sentence to give.

4. Under ...................................the judge considers the ...................................... set by other court decisions.

5.The jury hears ................................... in either civil or criminal trials and reaches a .................................... .



6. A civil trial is one that deals with disputes between ................................... ,often involving contracts or property rights.

7. In a civil trial, the jury decides which side is right and how much money should be paid in ................................. and ............................................... ............................................... . 8. For a jury to convict a person in a criminal case, they must believe the person guilty .......................................... ....................................................... ........................................ .

9. A person's liberty and even life can be taken away if he or she is ............................, that is, found guilty, of a crime.

10. Some of a judge's responsibilities are excluding .............................................. remarks and questions by lawyers and witnesses and deciding what kind of .................................... is ................................................................... .

11. If the required number of jurors cannot agree on a decision, it is called a ............................... jury, and the law requires a new trial.

12. What happens in plea bargaining is that the accused .........................................................

........................................ ....................................... to a....................................................... .

 

Check the spelling of the dictated words with your teacher. Discuss the meanings of these words and any other unfamiliar words in the sentences.

 

Task 17. Before listening to a rather difficult lecture on the U.S. legal system, read a related passsage dealing with precedents and surrogate motherhood, and then answer the comprehension questions that follow. Although somewhat difficult, the reading and the questions will prepare you for the lecture you will hear later.

The Baby M Case

The Baby M case became a controversial legal case in the United States in 1988. At issue were Baby M's custody and the validity of a contract. The contract provided that a woman, the surrogate mother, would have a baby for an infertile couple by artificial insemination of the husband's sperm and would receive payment for this service. Certainly, Baby M was not the first baby born to a surrogate mother, but in this case the surrogate mother, Mary Beth Whitehead-Could, changed her mind after the baby was born and did not want to give the baby up, as she had agreed to do in the contract. The Sterns, the couple who had contracted for the baby, insisted that Ms. Whitehead-Gould fulfill the terms of the contract, and they took her to the court. The New Jersey Supreme Court ruled that this type of contract was against public policy (the good of the general public) and, therefore, could not be enforced. (However, the court did award custody of the baby to the biological father. The mother, Ms. Whitehead-Gould, was awarded limited visitation rights.) This particular ruling was very important because there had been no previous court decision of this type at the level of a state supreme court. Therefore, this decision establishes a precedent for other states when they have to deal with the issue of surrogacy.

Questions:

a. Are Baby M's natural mother and father married to each other?

b.Who wanted to break the contract, Mary Beth Whitehead-Gould or the Sterns?

c. In this reading, precedent most nearly means

1) a reason not to do something

2) a decision used as a standard

3) proof of innocence

4) proof of guilt

 

d. Was there a precedent for judging surrogacy contracts before the Baby M case?

e. In what sense will the Baby M case serve as a precedent in the future?

 


Date: 2015-12-24; view: 1078


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