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Basics of economic theory

 

Many people are now aware that genetic information is contained in chromosomes. Scientists have learned to distinguish and differentiate segments within chromosomes. Therefore, we are able not only to distinguish each chromosome by its size and shape, but to recognize every segment within it. In diagnostics it is easy to distinguish chromosomes with additional or missing segments. This enables us to associate a hereditary disease with a specific defect in a chromosome and identify the segment responsible for the disease. This is a breakthrough in science. It helps to understand the molecular mechanisms of hereditary diseases, distinguish the genes which determine hereditary diseases and comprehend their mechanics.

The task of medical genetics is to understand the mechanism of a disease and to learn to inhibit the action of detective genes. I am not great believer that genetic engineering can enable us to substitute healthy genes for defective ones. This may possible be something for the very distant future. We might rather learn to lift or neutralize the action of defective genes. Like any doctor, I am inclined to regard myself as a mechanic rather than a designer.

Of all human diseases mental disorders are particularly tragic.

Of all the mental health of our planet on proper level we need to conduct a great deal with of researches, specifically into hereditary diseases.

We are aware that if a person has a subtle mind and intellect, he probably owes this to the genetic information contained in his organism. We can compare this to electronic computer. The faults which occur in a computer can also occur in a human brain. I am in no way equating the brain and machine, but we are modeling machines on the human brain.

When we look at genetic diseases we see that their causes are comparable to the faults in a computer. This analogy gave us a better understanding of what goes on in the brain and what causes its malfunction. So it may be said specialists in genetics are repair workers more than pioneers.

The previous years have given us hope of being to qualitatively diagnose and treat mental disorders in the very future. As a doctor, I think this promises many more benefits to mankind and specifically to sick people than genetic engineering which some people look at as to God himself.

 

2)

Genetic- adjective

 

Genetics- noun

 

3) Disease- illness, sickness

 

4) Many people are now aware that genetic information is contained in chromosomes.

We are able not only to distinguish each chromosome by its size and shape, but to recognize every segment within it.

In diagnostics it is easy to distinguish chromosomes with additional or missing segments.

This enables us to associate a hereditary disease with a specific defect in a chromosome and identify the segment responsible for the disease.

The task of medical genetics is to understand the mechanism of a disease and to learn to inhibit the action of detective genes.



We might rather learn to lift or neutralize the action of defective genes.

Of all the mental health of our planet on proper level we need to conduct a great deal with of researches, specifically into hereditary diseases.

We are aware that if a person has a subtle mind and intellect, he probably owes this to the genetic information contained in his organism.

We can compare this to electronic computer.

The faults which occur in a computer can also occur in a human brain.

 

 

Basics of economic theory

 

 

Prepared by: Kan Emiliya, group 212

 

Almaty, 2014

Salt – elastic good

Substitutes: soy sauce, sea salt, sour juice (lemon juice), garlic, herbs

Salt is usually used for adding it into our food as a spice, to make a meal more delicious. Scientifically proved, that salt is good for our organisms in certain amounts per day and it is pretty dangerous to consume salt in big amounts. Generally speaking, salt – is an inseparable part of most people’s lives nowadays, which makes it difficult to refer to the elastic or inelastic good.

Salt is considered to be an elastic good; as first of all, there are many substitutes for this good. If the price for salt dramatically increases at a time, so people can’t afford buying it, they will not rush into the groceries and get tons of salt. Most people will consider it unreasonable to pay more for the good, they don’t use in big amounts. Popular soy sauce, lemon juice or garlic will become a good substitute for this product and save people’s money (if the price for them won’t increase reasonably).

In fact, only 6% of all salt manufactured goes into food. Therefore, salt is not a life necessity indeed, as people’s health does not suffer, it only gets better actually.

Salt has a low price elasticity of demand, which means that if a product, such as salt, is very inexpensive, consumers are relatively indifferent about a price increase.

Bread – inelastic good

Substitutes: diet bread, bran cereal, rice cakes

Complements: oven, wheat

It is hard to imagine our lives without eating bread, especially for the countries, which know what the war is. The mentality of our country proceeds that bread – is our basic food. Kazakhs, Russians, Koreans and others, all of their national cuisines include lots of bread. Most people are just used to eat it and it’s difficult for them to feel gorged without having bread.

Consequently, if the bread is considered to be our main food, how can people stop buying it, even if will cost thousands of tenge.

To my mind, the substitutes of bread will not fully satisfy consumers, as there is no goods with approximately exact nutritional value, as bread has. That is why people will still strive to buy bread by any means – proving, that bread is an inelastic good.

Oil – inelastic good

Substitutes: gas, ethanol or Å85 (mix of ethanol and oil) – biofuels

Complements: car, airplanes, ships

Oil – is probably the most essential product in modern times. It is necessary for such world processes as: transport, heating, production of plastic, rubber and other materials.

It creates the comfortable details of our living that we don’t even notice now. For example, if I want to go to the university, I have to get a cab (which certainly uses oil to run) and it is hour and half to go to my studying by car.

Conclusion: will I be able to come to the lessons if I had a bicycle? And if I lived near the university, will I be able to visit my family whenever I want? Of course it would be difficult for all people not only to travel but even to do such daily operations like going to the market.

Heating oil for our homes is essential. As we know, oil, coal and other minerals are nonrenewable, which means that even if oil is ended up on the planet, we’ll use the coal which will run out: it’s just a matter of time.

Oil is essential, and truthfully saying, there are no really effective substitutes for it and if there are, we still have no clue about their existence.

Computer – elastic good

Substitutes: tablet, cell phones

Complements: mouse, monitor, printer, loudspeakers, modem

We live in the epoch of information and new technologies, so it logical that lately brand new gadgets become old in some period of time, until better and newer technologies appear.

Here what is happening to computers nowadays. We may observe that every day people use tablets, cell phones more than computers. There are tons of advantages of using the tablet: it does not take lots of space, it has same functions as computer does, it is easy in handling (touch screens) and etc.

Most pluses are for tablets and they become smarter and smarter with each season.

Computers are totally elastic goods, besides better substitutes, as people choose if they want to buy a computer or not.

99.7 percent of the world's population does not have a tablet.

“In addition, the rapid increase in the number of active computers entails increasing the number of obsolete, unused machines. This year, according to Gartner, will be charged more than 180 million computers. Some of them will be sold or recycled, the rest - just buried.” (http://compulenta.computerra.ru/archive/science/360803/)

Car – elastic good

Substitutes: bicycle, motorbike, public transport (buses, trolleys)

Complements: oil, spare parts, decorative elements

Cars are expensive and a 10% increase in the price of a car may make the difference whether people will choose to buy the car or not. Therefore, cars have a comparatively high price elasticity of demand.

*Note:

Depending on the type of car, it could either be elastic or inelastic. It could be a luxury car, or some rust box.

Cars – are elatic goods as you can substitute a car for a lower priced car, or switch to public transportation, biking or commuting.


Date: 2014-12-21; view: 1466


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