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HISTORY OF BRITISH RAILWAYS

George Stephenson (1781–1848) was the ‘father’ of British railways. He and his son, Robert (1803–1859), built steam locomotives – engines for pulling trains. From 1830 to 1850 engineers and businessmen built railways all over Britain. The first railway line from Liverpool to Manchester opened in 1830. In 1833 Robert Stephenson became chief engineer on the first railway line from London to Birmingham. They finished it in 1838. In 1840 people travelled for fun on a train for the first time. It took them from Nottingham to Leicester. They sang all the way! By 1850, there were over 2,500 steam locomotives in Britain. Their highest speed was 125 kilometres an hour. After 1850, Queen Victoria often travelled from London to Edinburgh by train. Victorian Railway stations were big, high, beautiful buildings. You can see many of them today. In London, there are nine main railway stations. The oldest is London Bridge (1836) and t he newest is Marylebone (1899.) The first electric railway opened in 1883. It was cleaner and quieter than steam. In 1914, at the start of World War I, no town in Britain was more than 32 kilometres from a railway station. Later, cars and airplanes became popular, and many smaller railway stations closed. But trains didn’t go away. In 1994, the Channel Tunnel opened. Now people can travel by train under the sea between England and France. It is one of the world’s greatest railway projects.

 

APeople first travel on a train for fun.

BThe first electric railway opens.

CQueen Victoria starts going by train to Scotland for her holidays.

DThey build London Bridge Station.

EThey build the Channel Tunnel.

FThey build Marylebone Station.

GThey build the first railway line between Liverpool and Manchester.

HThey finish the first railway line from London to Birmingham.

 

G H A C D F B E

 

 

Examination Card ¹8

I. Reading

Read the text and choose the best answer (A, B, C, D) for the sentences (1–4).

THE “MOZART EFFECT” – FACT OR FICTION?

Recently, the idea that listening to classical music can increase intelligence, especially in babies, has caught the attention of the media, researchers, and parents around the globe. In the early 1990s, researchers from France and the US published articles that said listening to Mozart for 10 minutes temporarily improved performance on IQ tests and challenging tasks. As a result, the media quickly began reporting on the “Mozart effect.”

In 1997, Don Campbell patented the term and published a book about this interesting phenomenon. Campbell claimed that classical music could improve health and memory, counteract mental and physical disorders, and reduce stress and depression. He soon followed with The Mozart Effect for Children, as well as CDs and products for parents of young children. Today, a wide selection of similar products is available, including Baby Mozart and Baby Bach, two bestselling DVDs in the popular Baby Einstein series. There are even music players specially designed for expectant mothers to wear on their tummies. This way, babies can listen to classical music before they’re even born. However, there is some doubt surrounding the “Mozart effect”. Parents question whether it is a proven reality or just a fad designed to make money. Frances H. Rauscher, a psychologist and author of one of the original studies, is skeptical. Much of the original research pointed to temporary improvements on specific tasks. She believes



These findings have been incorrectly portrayed as a general increase in intelligence. “I don’t think it can hurt,” Rauscher said. Yet she added that parents may still want to think twice before spending a fortune trying to make a genius out of their baby.

 

1. According to the article, what is meant by the “Mozart effect”?

ASpecial DVDs can help teach a child to play musical instruments.

BResearchers can determine a child’s intelligence by studying musical ability.

CSinging to an unborn child may inspire love of classical music.

DListening to classical music may increase intelligence, especially in babies.

2. Which of the following did NOT spread the popularity of the “Mozart effect”?

AMedia stories about the “Mozart effect”.

BBooks on intelligence and classical music.

CInterviews with successful “Mozart effect” babies.

DCDs, DVDs and devices making the “Mozart effect”.

3. Most recently, researcher Frances H. Rauscher..... .

Aexpressed doubt about the “Mozart effect”.

Bdeveloped a music player for pregnant women.

Creversed her opinion on classical music.

Dpatented the term of the “Mozart effect”.

4. According to the article parents..... .

Amust use different devices to develop the “Mozart effect”.

Bhave to spend so much money trying to make a genius out of their baby.

Cdoubt whether the “Mozart effect” is a proven reality or just a fad designed to make money.

Dare sure that the “Mozart effect” really exists.

 

D C A C

 


Date: 2015-12-24; view: 1198


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