What do Tom Sawyer and jumping frogs have in common? Stories about both of them were created by one man: Mark Twain. Born Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain was his pen name), Twain was four when his family moved to Hannibal, Missouri, located on the west bank of the Mississippi. Twain grew up there and was fascinated with life along the river – the steamboats, the giant lumber rafts, and the people who worked on them. “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County” is one of Twain’s best-loved short stories, and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer is one of his most famous novels. Both these works are celebrated by events held during National Tom Sawyer Days every 4th of July. The boy in the photo entered his frog in the jumping contest. There’s also a fence-painting contest to see who can paint the fastest. The idea for this contest comes from a scene in Tom Sawyer, in which Tom has been told to paint the fence in front of the house he lives in. It’s a beautiful day, and he would rather be doing anything else. As his friends walk by, he convinces them it’s fun to paint, and they join in the “fun.” By the end of the day, the fence has three coats of paint!
Although the story of Tom Sawyer is fiction, it’s based on fact. If you go to Hannibal, you’ll see the white fence, which still stands at Twain’s boyhood home.
1.Mark Twain’s family moved to Hannibal, Missouri, located on the east bank of the Mississippi.
2.The story of Tom Sawyer is fiction, based totally on Mark Twain’s imagination.
3.Twain wrote “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County,” and it was one of his best-loved short stories.
4.Mark Twain enjoyed watching the steamboats, but not the giant lumber rafts.
5.The idea of a fence-painting contest comes from a scene in a book about Tom Sawyer.
6.If we visit Hannibal, Missouri, we might see white fences everywhere.
Examination Card ¹4
Read the text. Match the headings (A–F) to the paragraphs (1–6).
ARisk-taking may be rewarding
BLeadership is an influence process
CQualities of an effective leader
DDefinition of the word ‘leader’
EMotivation is important
FVision and the ability to focus
The word “leader” is rather prominent these days. The Webster’s Dictionary clearly defines a leader as a person of good talent in commanding influence to a group of followers. It also defines a leadership as that ingredient of personality that causes men whether male or female to follow.
What makes a good leader? The leadership style is the pattern of behaviours used to influence others. It is the ability to motivate others to do something, believe in something or act in a certain way. Leaders are people who do the right thing. A leadership provides the vision, so that the management gets things done. Leadership can be learned. There are many classes of tools for effective leadership.
A leader must have a vision and be able to focus. The leader must state in concrete ideas how programmes will work, who will be served, what outcomes are expected from a project, what technology will be used and how the organization will get there. Tell people what you want and expect from them and never waste their time. Leaders should be able to see what it will take to get the job done effectively.
Leaders are also risk-takers. They must learn from their success and failure. They should be risky to take a chance. Leaders should always reward risk-taking in others. A leader must be able to empower others. Part of the empowerment process is to ensure that the leader listens to everyone’s suggestions, incorporates ideas as needed and gives credit to those who deserve recognition. Learning to give positive feedback is crucial!
A leader must learn what motivates people and then act accordingly. Praise (tell the people they have done well), appreciation (a simple ‘thank you’ regularly will earn the leader the respect), recognition (awards, credit on a report, a letter of recommendation) or the truth about problems (being clear about consequences) are all motivators. Leaders should also have a quality that makes people listen. They should know how to strike the attention of listeners to be turned to them. When they speak, people listen.
A good leader is able to change plans or tactics without hesitation the moment the old methods are not working well. An effective leader should be clear-headed, sensitive to the needs of change, self-confident but always ready to learn. The leader should be warm, direct and have a strong sense of justice. This quality is important, especially if the leader is going to touch on the lives of a nation where the people range from the old, young, feeble, weak, educated and uneducated and humans from all walks of life.