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The Twentieth-Century

By the turn of the century and for the next few decades, artists of all nationalities were searching for exciting and different modes of expression. Composers explored unusual and unorthodox harmonies and tonal schemes. French composer Claude Debussy was fascinated by Eastern music and the whole-tone scale, and created a style of music named after the movement in French painting called Impressionism. The tried-and-true genre of the symphony, somewhat modified by this time, attracted such masters as Gustav Mahler and Dmitri Shostakovich, while Igor Stravinsky gave full rein to his manipulation of kaleidoscopic rhythms and instrumental colors throughout his extremely long and varied career.

While many composers throughout the twentieth-century experimented in new ways with traditional instruments, many of the twentieth-century’s greatest composers, such as Italian opera composer Giacomo Puccini and the Russian pianist/composer Sergei Rachmaninoff, remained true to the traditional forms of music history. In addition to new and eclectic styles of musical trends, the twentieth century boasts numerous composers whose harmonic and melodic styles an average listener can still easily appreciate and enjoy.


13. Read the text and complete it with the phrases (a—i).

a) painter and writer

b) intended to compensate for the loss of usable floor area at ground level

c) it was often mainly glass

d) a track for joggers

e) and is still a strong influ­ence today

f) who are given freedom to express their ideas

g) the personality of those who designed the building

h) the monotonous repetitions of verticals and horisontals

i) which he planned in the 1950s


Le Corbusier

After the First World War the doctrine of Fimctionalism in architecture came into favour. The idea behind this was that, if a building or object is perfectly fitted for its function and con­structed with sensible regard for the materials used, it will be pleasing to the eye and satisfying to the mind. The great Swiss architect, 1. __, Le Corbusier, the pseudonym of Charles Jeanneret (1887—1965), pointed to Greek temples as perfect examples of this. The Functionalists discarded traditional conven­tions and superficial ornament, and had a great simplifying and purifying influence on design in every kind of material. This new tradition soon spread around the world 2. ____.

A new method of building construction — reinforced concrete -was perfectly suited to this structural approach. Concrete floors were supported on upright steel girders. The outer skin could be of any suitable material - 3. ____. The inner walls were merely partitions which could be placed and replaced wherever required as they played no part in supporting the building. The many opportunities afforded by this building method were demonstrat­ed by Le Corbusier as early as in 1915.

In the 1920s and '30s Le Corbusier's most significant work was in urban planning. He advanced ideas dramatically different from the comfortable, low-rise communities proposed by earlier city planners. He also built many villas and several small apart­ment complexes and office buildings. In these hard-edged smooth-surfaced geometric volumes he created a language of what he called pure prisms - rectangular blocks of concrete, steel and glass, often endowed with roof gardens 4. ____.

After World War II Le Corbusier moved away from purism. He showed the way to free architecture from 5. ____.

Le Corbusier was commissioned by the French government to plan and build his Vertical City in Marseilles. The result was a huge block of 340 villas raised above the ground, laced with two elevated thoroughfares of shops and other services and topped by a roof-garden community centre that contained, among other things, 6. ____.

His reputation led to a commission from the Indian govern­ment to plan the city of Chandigarh, the new capital of Punjab, and to design and build the Government Centre and several of the city's other structures. These handcrafted buildings represented a second, more humanistic phase in Le Corbusier's work.

His revolutionary design for the church of Notre Dame du Hart at Ronchamp in France, 7. ____, contrasts strongly with the earlier, impersonal approach. With its curved surfaces and an absence of straight lines and right angles, architecture becomes here almost a form of sculpture. Le Corbusier's church at Ronchamp has been a great influence on the designers of other unconventional buildings in more recent years.

Today architecture seems to be suffering from a kind of tug-of-war. The need to economize pulls it towards the featureless, tower-block type of construction, where mass-production and mechanisation are possible. On the other hand, there is a desire to avoid regimentation. A more personal approach is favoured. Buildings which are the chosen creations of gifted architects, 8. ____, are naturally verycostly to design and erect. They can

usually only be considered for such special buildings as national theatres, art galleries and churches.


Find in the text Le Corbusier (Ex. 3) words and word combinations that mean the following:

1. well suited for something

2. stopped using

3. a long strong beam used for constructing bridges and large buildings

4. important

5. having the shape of four straight sides and right angles of 90°

6. was given the job of making something

7. a public road or street used by traffic

8. different from what most people consider to be usual or normal

9. a situation in which two people or groups try in a determined way to get something they want

10. strict organisation and control

11. very expensive to plan and build


14. Read the sentences and complete them with the correct words derived from the words in bold on the right.

1. In the 18th century in Russia for the first time since the______________of _________________ sculpture became a major______________ art form. 2. During the 19th century there was a ________________ of medieval Russian architecture. 3. Russian architecture in the 20th cen­tury, after a brief phase of constructivist_________________in the 1920s, tended toward an____________of neoclassicism and skyscraper___________. 4. Sculpture was an art form_________ praised during the Baroque period. 5. As each new generation of Greek architects tried to make their ________s more perfect they became aware of certain____________illusions that distorted very_________________ their true aspect. 6. The Renaissance is really the _____climax of a period of change that has been gathering ______________for a long time. 7. The Medici were not __________________ businessmen of Florence; they were _______ involved in the __________________ of humanism and developings in art. 8. The Gothic style of building had ne­ver been accepted with____________in Italy. 9. When the Middle Ages began there were only two important classes in soci­ety the _____________ and the ___________ . 10. The study of _________writ­ings and art gave great _____________ to the growing ________________ seen everywhere. 11. Ancient Greek palaces were __________ planned. The _______________feature in them was a great hall with a colonnade. 12. The early __________ culture is called Minoan after the ___________ King Minos, who ruled in Crete. 13. Many ______________s at Pompeii were buried in _____________ ash when Vesuvius erupted in 79 AD. 14. Most of the fine old cathedrals have _________ ________arches over doors and windows. 15. At the __________ of the 19th century__________________s began to ______________sites______________. 16. Many _______________ and impor­tant ____________________were made ______________the remains of ancient Troy. introduce Christian Russia revive     experiment imaginative construct high   build optics slight   strike strong mere deep grow     enthusiast   noble peasant classics encourage dependence noble centre Crete legend   build volcano   grace point   begin archaeology cover careful excite discover include

15. Read the text. Complete it with the correct words derived from the words in bold on the right.

Russian Architecture of the 17th —18th Centuries During the 17th century influences from Lithuania and Poland brought about a 1.______________________ interest in 2. _______________ antiquity that was to culminate in the 3. _______________ of Russia under Peter the Great. In 1712 Peter moved his capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg and began the 4.______________of a mud flat on the coast of Finland into a 5. ____________ 6._____________ city. A host of 7.___________________ architects was imported and continued to work under 8._____________________reigns. The 9.__________________ architect of the period was Conte Bartolomeo Francesco Rastrelli. Working in a Rococo style, he designed the Winter Palace, Smolny Cathedral, and the facade at Petergof, one of the most 10. _________________ 11.______________s in St. Petersburg.     humanist classic westernize   transform sparkle Europe west succeed outstand     beauty build


16. You will hear a text about English castles. Listen to it and choose the right item (A—C) for the statements below.

1. The typical motte and bailey castles in Europe began to appear in the 9th century AD.

A. True B. False C. Not stated

2. People only stayed in castles during enemy attacks but never lived there.

A. True B. False C. Not stated

3. The Tower of London is mentioned in the text as a sample of a traditional motte and bailey castle.

A. True B. False C, Not stated

4. English monarchs used to live in the Tower of London. A. True B. False C. Not stated

5. A wall-walk was a path on the ground around the castle wall used by soldiers to guard the place.

A. True B. False C. Not stated

6. Square towers were more preferable for military use than round ones.

A. True B. False C. Not stated

7. The appearance of gunpowder stopped castles from being used as fortifications.

A. True B. False C. Not stated

8. Many historians think that gunpowder first appeared in Europe in the 13th century.

A. True B. False C. Not stated

9. Afterwards people continued to construct buildings in the style of castles.

A. True B. False C. Not stated


17. Complete the text choosing the best word from the columns after it.

Hampton Court Palace

Originally Hampton Court Palace was not a royal residence. It was built by Thomas Wolsey, an English cardinal and 1.____, and presented by him to his master, King Henry VIII. The furnishings, tapestries and decorations with which he 2.____ its rooms were included in

the gift. King Henry enlarged Hampton Court and 3._ _ the cardinal's great hall with the one which we can see today.

A local legend says that when Wolsey was looking for a place for his country residence he 4. the most celebrated doctors in England to select "the most healthy spot 5.____ twenty miles of London". All agreed to recommend Hampton Court. While his palace 6.____ Wolsey enclosed the estate, which covers nearly 1,800 acres, to form Hampton Court and Bushy Parks.

When Hampton Court 7.____Wolsey, it already 8.____ about 1,000 rooms, all of which were used. The cardinal's own 9.____ numbered nearly 500 people, and there were always 280 silken beds available for visitors. Cardinal Wolsey also made his home a 10.____ of hygiene. Every part of Hampton Court was drained and rain water and refuse were carried by great brick sewers into the Thames. 11.____ that it lasted until 1871. The palace never lacked pure fresh water. It came from the springs at Coombe Hill three miles away on the other side of the Thames, under which it was conveyed in leaden 12.____. Hampton Court continued to

receive water by 13.____ until 1876.

Nowadays Hampton Court is a memorial of its founder, Cardinal Wolsey, and the three 14.____whose taste it displays - Henry VIII and William and Mary.


1. a) politic b) politician ñ) politico d) politics

2. a) was filling b) filled c) has filled d) had filled

3. a) represented b)replenished c) replaced d) repeated

4. a) rented b) hired c) took d) employed

5. a) in b) within c) around d) from

6. a) was built b) had been built c) was being built d) was building

7. a) belonged to b) possessed by c) owned by d) had

8. a) consisted b) united c) comprised of d) contained

9. a) house b) home c) family d) household

10. a) paragon b) model c) seem d) representation

11. a) So sound was the system b) So sound the system was

c) So was the system sound d) So sound the system

12. a) tubes b) chimneys c) trumpets d) pipes

13. a) this mean b) this means c) a mean d) a means

14. a) sovereigns b) kings c) queens d) royalists

18. Match the clauses from the two columns to get ten valid sentences.

A 1) Spare me the necessity 2) Davis lingered for some time in the bar 3) What Jerry is saying 4) Thomas had been vague 5) Hamilton was so amiable. 6) The cold November was so strong 7) John spared neither money nor expense 8) Fiona is always ready to listen to my problems, 9) The job turned out to be an ordeal for me, 10) I think the latest news he got from home â a) and merely said that he was doing badly. b) we had a feeling he really wanted to humour c) in helping us. d) but couldn't see Paul any­where. e) I wish I hadn't begun it. f) made him look so gloomy g) of talking with Gwen. h) is complete nonsense. i) she really has a sympathe­tic ear. j) that the house shook and the windows rattled.


19. Separable and inseparable verbs

Fill in the blanks by putting the word 'it' in the correct place. In each sentence you will have to leave one blank empty.

1 You must be hot with your coat on. Why don't you take ____ off __?

2 If you don't understand this word, look ____ up ____ in your dictionary.

3 He had a very bad illness, and it will take him a long time to get __over___

4 I was going to do my homework last night, but I didn't get around __to___

5 I thought you had finished reading the newspaper, so I threw ___away___

6 Jill can't come to the meeting tomorrow, so we'll have to put __ off __ until next week.



Many phrasal verbs have opposites. You will learn them more quickly if you memorize them together.

Match each sentence in 1-10 with its opposite in a-j. Then write the pairs of opposites in the spaces below.

1 It was getting dark so I turned on the light 2 Don't leave your bag on the floor like that-pick it up! 3 It's cold - put your coat on. 4 I bought Jon a present to cheer him up. 5 You should check in at reception as soon as you arrive. 6 I pulled over at the side of the road to look at the map. 7 I tried to learn the guitar but packed it in after a few weeks. 8 My dad is coming to pick me up at ten. 9 A 10% service charge is added on to the bill. 10 I'm so tired. I can't wait to get home and sit down. a I can drop you off on my way home if you like, b You have to check out of the hotel before midday, ñ Takeoff that silly hat! d I've decided to lake up aerobics, e Did you see that? That driver pulled out right in front of me. f Don't forget to turn off the TV before you go to bed. g We all stood up when the head teacher came into the classroom, h What's thirty-one take away fourteen? i He put the book down on the table. j Don't let the exams get you down.


turn sth on ____________ put sth on _____________ check in ______________ pack sth in _____________ add sth on _______________ pick sth up _______________ cheer sb up ______________ pull over _________________ pick sb up _______________ sit down _______________


20. Complete the sentences using the following prepositions where necessary.

about on for over out from to into with in up

A. 1. Spare me _____ the necessity of going there. 2. His was a very vague answer which couldn't make me feel any sympathy him. 3. The weather was terrible. We could hear hail rat­tling ____ the roof and strong gusts of wind. 4. Can you spare some money____ the homeless. 5. If you flop ____ a chair, you sit down loosely and heavily because you are tired. 6. Michael's eyes lingered__________the stranger's face. 7. Everyone prayed that Allah might spare the village____ starvation. 8. When James learned the true version he became very sympathetic ____ the girls. 9. The process was a real ordeal ____ Emily but she could do nothing. 10. It was a nice, cosy cafe. Ralph liked it and lin­gered ____ his coffee. 11. She is fond of gossiping____ her neighbours' matters. 12. Robert said he wouldn't put____ with any nonsense. 13. The feelings of hurt and resentment lingered for years. 14. They were carrying out a strike____sympa­thy with the miners. 15. I'm sympathetic____his ideas. 16. John flopped down ____ the bed and read for a while.

For on to with

B. 1. He was finally granted access____ the medical records. 2. She met ____ an accident while ____ holiday. 3. Charge this ____my account, please. 4. She could hardly speak _ the ache in her heart. 5. The garage gives a year's guarantee ____ all repair work. 6. I don't know what has happened____my elder brother. 7, We are all looking forward _____ your arrival. 8. They sealed the agreement____a handshake. 9. Jane said she had been subjected ____ violence. 10. Florence glared at him ____ hatred. 11.____reflection they decided to refuse the invitation. 12. They reached the border with the police hot ____ their heels. 13. I opened the window and cried ____ help. 14. Robert was helpless ____ anger. 15. I hit my head ____ the low doorway.

21. Match the words in the two columns to form phrases and use them to complete the sentences that follow.

A amiable rattled deepest lingered gossipy money makes looked crisp terrible biggest sympathetic hopelessly  nonsense to spare day vague the windows gloomy flop manner faintly ear sympathy person ordeal

1. A cold November wind____and howled in the chimney. 2. The videotape collection ____ of sitting in the cinema. 3. Paul is one of those who are ready to provide a ____ for anyone who needs to speak of their problems. 4. They were spared the____ of giv­ing evidence in court. 5. She left but the smell of her perfume ____in the room. 6. Have you got any ____? If not, I can lend you some. 7. Our ____ lies with the families of the victims. 8. At that time the future____ for the country; it was the peri­od of national pessimism. 9. Her directions were____and it took us hours to find her house. 10. It was a ____ and we soon felt cold and decided to return to the warmth of our fireplace. 11. The show turned out to be the____ in TV history. 12. I've only met Julia once and was charmed by her ____. 13. A ____ enjoys talking about other people and their lives.


22. You will hear a text about Greek architecture. To complete the state­ments (1—6) circle the item you have chosen.

1. The ancient Greeks made____magnificent.

a) all their buildings b) their dwellings c) their temples

2. The ancient Greeks ____.

a) built and used arches b) used mortar c) used neither arches nor mortar

3. A Greek temple ____.

a) is always lavishly decorated b) stands at some altitude c) has got steps only on one side

4. Columns are a(n)____ element of a Greek temple.

a) alternative b) necessary c) secondary

5. The Corinthian order appeared____.

a) before the Ionic order b) before the Doric order c) latest of the three orders

6. Greek architects____the three styles.

a) seldom mixed b) often mixed c) were likely to mix

23. Match the words in the two columns to form phrases and use them to complete the sentences that follow.

French gold
Marble art
tall pillars
solid panels
Gothic patio
wooden floors
sunlit Arch
ancient spires
velvet draperies
terracotta frescos
tiled pots
Baroque window

1.____________________was popular in Europe in the 17th and early 18th centuries. It was very detailed and complicated. 2. The old_________________ on the walls made the room look dark and gloomy. 3. The hospital corridors had slippery________________ and painted light green walls. 4. The__________________in the church depicted some Biblical scenes. 5. The picture frames were made of________________and attracted the burglars. 6. Several big roads meet at__________________in central London. 7. We loved our leisurely afternoons on the________________when we talked, laughed and sipped on lemonade. 8. He left the house

through the________________ unnoticed by anyone. 9. The roof garden was lined with big____________________where we grew herbs and flowers. 10, The thick_________________on the win­dows shut out the sunlight and when I woke up in the morning, I couldn't figure out the time. 11. Oxford is a city of old stone buildings and__________________. 12. The roof above the stage rested on two________________that were often used as part of scenery.



24. Read the text and use the right forms of the verbs in brackets to complete it.

The Green Dragon

After that adventure it seemed well to the children (keep)1 away from the station -- but they did not, they (can)2 not (keep)3 away from the railway. They (live)4 all their lives in a street where cabs and omnibuses (rumble)5 by at all hours. Here in the deep silence of the sleeping country the only thing that (go)6 by (be)7 the trains. They seemed to be all that (leave)8 to link the children to the old life that once (be)9 theirs.

They (begin)10 to know the hours when certain trains (pass)11, and they (give)12 names to them. The 9.15 up (call)13 the Green Dragon. One morning they (sit)14 on the fence waiting for the Green Dragon, which was three minutes late by Peter's watch that Mother (give)15 him on his last birthday.

"The Green Dragon (go)16 where Father is," said Phyllis. "I wonder why Father (not, write)17 to us yet."

"Mother says he (be)18 too busy," said Robbie; "but he (write)19 soon.

"Let's all (wave)20 to the Green Dragon as it goes by. If it (be)21 a magic dragon, it (understand)22 and take our love to Father."

(After The Railway Children by E. Nesbit)



25. Essay Writing

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