This time I want to tell you about Tyumen, my home town, which is situated in Western Siberia. It’s rather far from Moscow, Russia’s capital, over 2,000 km to the east. Tyumen, the first Russian town in Siberia, was founded on July 29, in 1586. It is situated on the banks of the Tura River at the former place of the Tartar settlement Tchingy-Tura. The place on the high bank of the Tura River where the Tyumenka flows into it was chosen by voivodes Vasily Sukin and Ivan Myasnoy. It was a good idea to locate a fortified town where the landscape itself with rivers and deep ravines helped to protect Russian and Tartar settlers against nomad invasions. As the time went on, Tyumen became an essential point on the trade route to Central Asia, Persia and China, the centre of leather manufacturing, craftsmanship and agriculture. Since 1944 when the Tyumen Region was formed, the city has been the administrative centre of the largest region in Russia. Large tracts of pine forest surround Tyumen. The countryside, with its large lakes and hot springs, attract tourists.
It’s interesting to know that for many years Tyumen was called the “capital of villages”. It was the place of exile till the middle of the 20th century. The industrial development of Tyumen began with the construction of the Trans-Siberian railway that connected the town with European Russia.
Well, nowadays Tyumen is considered to be oil and gas capital, though neither oil, nor gas is produced here. In 1960-1970s due to its advantageous location at the crossing of the motor, rail, water, and air ways and its temperate climate, Tyumen became the centre of the oil and gas industry of Western Siberia. There are numerous research Institutes, oil and gas pipelines and refineries. Tyumen is one of the financial, cultural, and educational centres of the Urals and Western Siberia. Most of freight and passenger traffic passes through it. I’ve probably told you Tyumen is a town of students. There are several universities, academies and dozens of colleges.
The four-century history of Tyumen is interesting and instructive; it reflects the fate of Russia. Siberian architecture was strict and simple. About 70 buildings are registered as historical monuments; many of them are decorated with unique wood engraving. The first stone building in Tyumen was Troitsky (Trinity) Monastery erected by the decree of Peter the Great. Znamensky Cathedral is the embodiment of Siberian Baroque style. It is still one of the most beautiful and famous churches in Russia. At the end of the 19th century the axis of the town was built up with two-storied brick houses. Many of them still exist in central streets and give us the idea of a typical merchants’ town.
The citizens of Tyumen are proud of their town and its history. The best way to see the town is to start with Istoricheskaya (Historical) Square where the Museum of Local Lore is situated. This museum has a rich collection of minerals, flora and fauna of the Tyumen Region. There is a war memorial with the Eternal Flame nearby. The Masharov Mansion Museum is located not far from this place.
There are many beautiful modern and reconstructed sites in Tyumen: Lovers’ Footbridge, Tsvetnoy Boulevard, the Embankment, etc. The names of many places in Tyumen eternize the memory of merchant Andrey Tekutyev who built a hospital, a theatre, a library, a church and many other things for the town.
I’m sure you’d like to know about our places of interest. Tyumen has a lot of entertainment facilities for people of all ages. There are many cinemas and clubs. Tyumen has had its own Drama Theatre since 1858. There is also the Puppet Theatre and the Angazhement Theatre. The Concert Hall named after Yury Gulyayev is visited by Russian and world-famous music stars. The Tyumen Circus is very popular among children and their parents. Tyumen has a unique collection of masterpieces in its Picture Gallery. Many permanent exhibitions of Siberian national arts and skills attract tourists’ attention nowadays.
Tyumen offers a great variety of cuisine in its numerous restaurants and bars. There are some annual events taking place in the town such as the Student Spring Music Show and the City Festival.
There’s one more point worth mentioning. The permanent multinational population of Tyumen is over 600,000. They work and live with mutual respect to their historical and national traditions.
Tyumen is a city of banks, malls and supermarkets, a city of crowded streets with traffic jams, a city of beautiful flowers in summer and enchanting illumination in winter. The whole city is under construction: old buildings are being restored and many new ones are being erected. Tyumen is both ancient and young, citizens really love it.
I’d be happy to see you in Tyumen and show you my town.
● Read Letter 3 and say what your favourite place is in Tyumen. Is it mentioned in the letter?
3.3Combine the words in A and B to form phrases:
1 rush a) building
2 traffic b) life
3 night c) rate
4 cost d) hour
5 crime e) park
6 shopping f) of living
7 high-rise g) jam
8 car h) centre
9 polluted i) street
10 noisy j) air
11 crowded k) possibilities
12 entertainment l) masterpieces
13 collection of m) streets
3.4 Read the factfile and decide if Tyumen is a city or a town.
towna large area with houses, shops, offices etc where people live and work, that is smaller than a city and larger than a village
villageseveral houses forming a small group around a church, shops etc
citya large important town
home townthe city or town where you lived as a child
countrysideland that is outside cities and towns, with farms, fields and trees