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THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE

The meeting held in Philadelphia 1774 called the Continental Congress. It decided to stop all trade with Britain, start collecting guns and practice using them and not to obey the laws and queen - an open conflict. third of the colonists were Loyalists (staying loyal to Britain). They said the Patriots were traitors.

The Continental Congress organized the Continental Army. George Washington of Virginia army commander

1776, the members of the CC agreed to issue the paper that is now called the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration - free and independent states, by Thomas Jefferson of Virginia. decided to fight against

American soldiers brave and able fighters, but at first they were no match for the trained British soldiers. At that time Britain was the most powerful country in the world.

1779, both free blacks and slaves were allowed to join the army. on ships

both Spain and France were enemies of Britain at that time. supplies money to the Americans. +Polish In 1777 the Patriots won an important victory at Saratoga in New York State.

The Battle of Yorktown marked the end of the fighting. GB agreed that the 13 colonies independent.

The new nation reached from Canada to Florida and from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River.

 

THE CONSTITUTION AND THE FIRST ELECTION FOR PRESIDENT

Washington's friends, Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, also felt something had to be done to find a way to make a stronger national government. It was decided to convene a meeting in Independence Hall, Philadelphia. It was called the Convention of 1787: a total of 55 men met at the Convention through the summer of 1787.

George Washington had been elected chairman, and the others had great respect for his opinions. James Madison had studied the governments of different nations and gave expert advice. Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790, American statesman, philosopher

Long debates were caused by differences in opinions. Thus, people from the large and the small states had different ideas about the system of representation of members in Congress.

It was suggested that Congress should be divided into two parts. In one part, called theSenate, each state would have two votes. In the second part, called theHouse of Representatives, the number of representatives would be set according to the number of people in each state. After much talk, this plan was accepted, and it was calledthe Great Compromise.

 

3. The 19th century (Civil war and etc)

The war of 1812

1803 – the war between France and GB, target: to stop American ships from trading with its enemy. British wanted to control the Old Northwest from the colony of Canada

· kidnapped American sailors

· Indian raids against frontier settlements (Tecumseh – a Shawnee leader)

America was not prepared to fight a war (a weak level of the army and navy) => willing to avoid war. Only congressmen from the West and the South (War Hawks) were for it hoping to conquer Canada and to gain Spanish Florida.



The spring of 1812 - the USA declared war on GB

failed American invasions

important battles:

· GB captured Detroit

· Washington (GB won) + government buildings` arson

· Fort McHenry in Baltimore harbor (GB failed)

The poem “The Star-Spangled Banner" of Francis Scott Key. It conveyed the patriotic feeling and in 1931 became the text of the American national anthem).

1815 - the Battle of New Orleans was an America victory.

1819 - Spain gave up all of Florida to the United States.

 


Date: 2015-12-24; view: 1244


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