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Look at the picture of your visit to the theatre and answer these questions.

1 Did you sit in the stalls or circle?

2 Which row were you in?

3 Were you next to an aisle?

4 Did you have a good view of the stage?


2. What word or phrase is being defined?

1 A play or film in which part of the story is sung to music.

2 The total number of actors in a play or film.

3 The people who watch a play at the theatre.

4 What these people do with their hands at the end of a play.

5 The person who makes a film.

6 Journalists who write articles about films and plays.

7 The name of the articles they write.

8 The translation of the story of a film across the bottom of the screen.

9 To reserve tickets before the performance.

10 The most important actors or actresses in a film.


3. Have you seen these famous films made in English over the last twenty years? If so, try to complete the rest of the table using words from above. Then write in the titles of three more films you have seen and complete the rest of the table for it.

Film   1. Dirty Harry with Clint Eastwood 2. Blade Runner with Harrison Ford 3. Four Weddings and a Funeral with Hugh Grant 4. Schindler's List with Liam Neeson   5. Dances with Wolves with Kevin Costner 6. 7. 8. Type of film Subtitles or dubbed? Description of film (adjectives)

/English Vocabulary in Use. Pre-intermediate & Intermediate. Stuart Redman/


Vocabulary DO and MAKE


The words DO and MAKE are very similar. It is often difficult to choose between them. However, there are some differences.

1. We use DO when we talk about an activity without saying exactly what that activity is Ė for example, with something, nothing, anything, everything, what, e.g.:

Do something!

He likes doing nothing.

What shall we do?

I donít know what to do. Then he did a very strange thing.

What are you doing?

Iím doing a puzzle.

2. So now you see that DO can mean to perform an activity or action in general, it can also mean to solve or to put together.

3. We use DO when we talk about work and in the structure DO-ing, e.g.:

Iím not doing any work today.

Iím going to do some reading.

I dislike doing housework.

I hate doing the cooking, washing up, shopping Ė letís get a maid to do these jobs.

Would you like to do my job?

Iíve got to do my homework.

4. We often use MAKE when we talk about constructing, building, creating, causing or forcing something to happen.

I enjoy making model aircraft.

Iíve just made a cake.

Letís make a plan.

My father and I once made a boat.

That company makes television sets.

Can you make bread?

The car journey made him sick.

They made him work hard.

5. In other cases, there are no clear rules. If you are not sure which word is correct, look it up in a dictionary.

1. Use either do or make to fill in the blanks.


In most countries, young men have to _________ military service. Some do not enjoy it but they know they must __________ their duty. These people usually try to __________ the best of it. Others discover that they are cut out for the military life: they __________ the most of it.

Everyone learns that it ____________ no good to ___________ a fuss or to ___________ a nuisance of oneself.

If you are late, it _________ no good to __________ excuses.

If you don't like running, walking or climbing or getting up at 6 A.M., you must learn to like it: the army ___________ no exceptions. Do not try to ___________ sense of military regulations: their purpose is to confuse you. And every time you __________ a mistake, the sergeant-major will say you are trying to __________ a fool of him.


2. Finish each of the following sentences in such a way it means exactly the same as the sentence printed before it.


1. This is not your concern.

This has got _________________________________

2. He regularly went for a walk early in the morning.

He made a ________________ of going for a walk.

3. Be quiet!

Stop _____________________ noise!

4. The two companies have been trading together for many years.

The two companies have been ____________________.

5. I need to speak to someone on the telephone.

I have to ____________________________ .

6. He could have passed the exam but he just didn't try.

He _________________________________________.

7. We traveled the long distance from Italy by car.

We made _________________________________.


3. Fill in the gaps using make or do.


Albert was a criminal, although no one would have believed it on meeting him. He was a kind-hearted man, always ready to __________ someone a favour. He had the habit of __________ suggestions with his hands as he spoke and was always __________ people laugh. During his twenty≠-year career, he had __________ a large fortune from crime. He loved money

and had decided years ago that it was much easier to __________ money through stealing than through having to __________ a lot of hard work.

He lived in a large house and had a housekeeper who __________ the cooking. He also had two maids who __________ the cleaning and washing up and __________ the beds and a man who came twice a week to ___________ the gardening. Albert started life as a businessman but had not __________ a great impression on his boss. In fact he had __________ so many stupid things that everyone in the office had begun to __________ fun of him behind his back. Albert __________ up his mind. He would __________ one last effort to __________ a success of business and if he __________ another mistake he would leave the business world. He decided his firm could __________ some more business abroad. He __________ several important contacts and __________ all the arrangements for a meeting between his company and one in France. At the meeting, however, he __________ such a terrible speech that the business deal fell through and Albert found himself unemployed. He had __________ his best but had failed. He turned to crime, and soon __________ good progress in his new career; at last he had __________ a success of his life. he found he need ďworkĒ during summer, while in winter he __________ a habit of going abroad to find the sun. This __________ him the world of good and on returning home he was ready to __________ everything he could

Unit 4

Grammar Can and Be Able to expressing ability

1. Complete the sentences with can, can't, could, or couldn't.

1. Fish ___________ talk.

2. I used to be a good swimmer. I ___________ swim long distances when I was a


3. Why ___________ all the nations of the world just get along in peace? Why are there

always wars somewhere on the earth?

4. When I was younger, I ___________ stay up past midnight and get up at dawn feeling

refreshed and ready to go. I ___________ do that any longer now that I'm middle-aged.

5. I ___________ get to sleep last night because it was too hot in my room.

6. An illiterate person is someone who ___________ neither read nor write.

7. My uncle was a wonderful craftsman. He made beautiful things out of wood. But he ___________ read or write because he never went to school.

8. I had to put together my daughter's tricycle. It came from the factory unassembled. At first I ___________ figure out what to do, but finally, after hours of work, I managed to get it assembled.

/Understanding and Using English Grammar, Workbook, Betty Schrampfer Azar/


2. Complete these sentences about the Wilsonís plans with can/canít and Ďll be able/wonít be able to.


1. Mr Wilson is taking a course in Computer Programming. At the moment he canít write complicated programs, but soon Heíll be able to write them quite well.

2. Mrs Wilson is learning Spanish. She _______ speak it very well yet. She hopes she _________ to buy the end of the course.

3. Stephen is taking guitar lessons. He __________ play quite well already, but he hopes he ___________ play like a professional.

4. Julie is taking a typing course. She knows she ____________ pass her secretarial exams next year unless she improves her typing speed. Sheís doing well, and soon she ___________ 60 words a minute.


3. Complete the account of the climb with could/couldnít wherever possible Ė otherwise use was/were able to.

Stephen and Julie were spending a few days camping with some friends in Snowdonia. On a climb, there was a difficult section. Stephen has long arms, and was able to climb this easily, but Julie is not so tall and __________ reach the hold. In the end, she ___________ reach it by standing on her friendís shoulders. ďNever mind,Ē he said. ďI ____________ get up this bit the first time I tried.Ē The rest of the climb was easier, and they ____________ reach the top by 12 oíclock. It was warm and sunny, and they ______________ see the whole of Snowdonia.


4. Complete the answers to the questions with was/were able to.

1. A. Did Everybody escape from the fire?

B. Yes. Although the fire spread quickly, everybody ____________________________

2. A. Did you have difficulty finding Annís house?

B. Not really. Ann had given us good directions and we ________________________

3. A. Did you finish your work this afternoon?

B. Yes. There was nobody to disturb me, so __________________________

4. A. Did the thief get away?

B. Yes. No one realized what was happening and the thief ___________________

5. Fill in: was/were able to, could(n't), had been able to, will be able to or can.

1. You _____________ run much faster when you were younger.

2. On entering the house I _____________ smell something burning in the kitchen.

3. If you work quickly, you _____________ finish on time.

4. When we lived on the coast, we _____________ swim in the sea every day.

5. If Gordon _____________ find his way out of the jungle, he would have survived.

6. Last week he _____________ arrange a meeting with the Prime Minister.

7. I'm not usually very good at tennis, but yesterday I _____________ beat my brother.

8. Tom _____________ finish this today, won't he?

9. He _____________ fix the tap so he called a plumber.

/Round-up 6, Virginia Evans/


6. Underline the most suitable words. Sometimes both options are possible.

1. He's a concert pianist and he can / manages to play all Beethoven's sonatas.

2. When I lived in a small town I was able to / could walk almost everywhere, but now I
live in the capital city I need a car.

3. They worked all night and could / managed to finish the report just in time.

4. The protestors didn't manage to / couldn't persuade the president to change the law.

5. Next year she can / will be able to join the club, but she's not old enough yet.

6. In my country it can / is able to get very cold in the winter.

7. I was nearly late as the bus didn't come, but luckily I could / managed to get a taxi.

8. I hope that I will be able to / will manage to do some sightseeing when I'm in New York
next week on business, but I've got a busy schedule.

9. She didn't get good enough grades to go to her first choice of university but she could /
was able to
get a place at another one.

/From Cambridge Grammar for IELTS, Diana Hopkins with Pauline Cullen/


Be to - Planned actions

7. Complete the sentences using modal verbs be to and have to in the correct tense.

1. Iíll _________ look after my little nephew at the weekend. My sister asked me to.

2. Iím having an interview tomorrow. I _________ be at the office at 4 p.m.

3. We agreed that the next panel discussion _________ be held in May.

4. Itís raining cats and dogs. You __________ wait until it stops.

5. If we ________ remain friends, let us not lie to each other.

6. What _______ I ______ do now? Iím really at a loss.

7. My car broke down. Iíll __________ go to work by bus until it is mended.

8. What _________ become of him? He is such a naughty child!


Grammar Revision

1. Which of the words in the box will fit the sentences? Often there is more than one possibility.

will should can ought to could must may have to might

a. You _________ get your hair cut. It's much too long.

b. _________ I ask you a question?

c. Young children _________ be carried on this escalator.

d. You _________ never get a seat on this train. It's always packed.

e. I _________ already speak five languages fluently.

f. You'll _________ work much harder if you want to pass.

g. You _________ leave your valuables in the hotel safe.

h. You _________ be over lm 60cm tall to be an air hostess.

/from New Headway Upper-Intermediate, Workbook/

2. Underline the correct answer.

a. You don't have to / mustn't use cream in this sauce, but it makes it much tastier.

b. I couldn't / wouldn't watch my favourite TV programme because Sue rang up for a long chat.

c. I'm afraid I cannot/may not come to your wedding as I'm on holiday in Australia.

d. I was able to / could get 10% off the marked price by paying in cash.

e. You don't have to / mustn't say a word about this to your mother. It's a surprise.

/from New Headway Upper-Intermediate, Workbook/


3. Fill in the gaps below with the correct form of (not) have to, must, (not) need or should.

1 A: I'm going to Florence next week so I ____________ to buy a guidebook.

B: Ah, well, you're in luck. You ____________ buy a book because I've got a small guide to Florence I can lend you.

2 A: What's Mike doing these days?

B: He's studying really hard. He ____________ pass his exams in order to get the

promotion his company have promised him.

3 A: ____________ (you) wear a uniform at work?

B: Yes, and I find it rather strange because I've never worn one before. When I was at school we ____________ wear a uniform although the girls ____________ wear skirts and not trousers.

4 A: The rules for university fees have just changed. I was really lucky because I ____________ pay for my education, but unfortunately my brother ____________ pay when he goes to university next year.

B: Yes, I know. My sister will be affected too.

5 A: The bread's in the oven. Can you remind me to get it out in 20 minutes? I ____________ forget like last time when I burnt the loaf.

B: I'm sorry. I'm afraid I ____________ go now, so I won't be able to remind you. Can't you set a timer?
A: Oh, ____________ (you/really) go? I'd hoped you'd stay to lunch and have some of my bread!

6 A: I've just joined the tennis club. They've got all sorts of rules, you know.
B: Really? Like what?

A: Well, you ____________ wear white clothes on the courts, of course. But the really silly rule is that you ____________ turn your mobile off as soon as you arrive at the club. I don't want to do that - what if I'm needed at work or something?

B: Perhaps they don't know you're a doctor. You ____________ tell them.

/From Cambridge Grammar for IELTS, Diana Hopkins with Pauline Cullen/


4. Read the extract. Decide if the underlined phrases are correct or not. Tick (v) them if they are right and correct them if they are wrong.

Pollution is causing enormous problems all over the world these days. Governments 1.need to act quickly to stop this problem before it is too late.

The first thing I believe we 2. absolutely should do is reduce the amount we use our cars. Our governments 3. must to encourage us to use public transport In my country, public transport is not very reliable, so the first thing that governments 4. have to do is to ensure that buses and trains are a viable alternative to the car. They 5. also should reduce the costs to the public of travelling on public transport

However, it is not only the government that 6. needs to make an effort. All of us 7.should make some effort to reduce pollution. First of all we 8. ought try to walk or cycle if we can, rather than using our cars. In the past people 9. must walk or cycle because they did not have cars. It is a shame that we have become so dependent on cars now. Secondly, we 10. should trying to share car use with our friends and colleagues.

All of us 11. will must make some changes to our lives if we want to reduce pollution. Fortunately, we 12. mustn't make big changes to make big improvements in the situation.


1 _____________ 5 _____________ 9 _____________

2 _____________ 6 _____________ 10 _____________

3 _____________ 7 _____________ 11 _____________

4 _____________ 8 _____________ 12 _____________

/From Cambridge Grammar for IELTS, Diana Hopkins with Pauline Cullen/

5. Necessary or not necessary?

Make sentences using must, mustn't, should, (not) have to and needn't based on the situations below. In some case there is more than one possibility.

a) It's Simon's first day in a new job. It's late and he's still in bed. What does his mother say to him?

'You must get up or you'll be late! You mustn't be late on your first day!'

b) Susan really hates getting up early and today is Sunday. Why is she happy?


c) The restaurant you went to last night was fantastic. Recommend it to your friends.


d) Tell your visitor not to drink the water from the tap. It's not safe.


e) Your son doesn't want to take the medicine the doctor recommended. You are insistent.


f) You are going to a dinner party. Ask someone if it's necessary to take a present for the hostess.


/From Intermediate Matters Workbook, Jan Bell, Roger Gower/


IN OTHER WORDS It's forbidden to smoke in hospitals. - You mustn't smoke in hospitals. Let's go for a walk. - Shall we go for a walk? Was it necessary for Ann to leave the party that early? - Did Ann need to/have to leave the party that early? Shall I help you with the dishes? - Would you like me to help you with the dishes? It isn't necessary to do the ironing today. - You don't have to/don't need to/needn't do the ironing today. Would you mind if I used your phone? - May/Might I use your phone?


6. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Use the word given in the brackets and other words to complete each sentence. You must use between two and five words. Do not change the word given.

1. I'll carry that bag for you. (like)

Would _________________________________________________________ that bag for you?

2. I advise you to drive more slowly. (should)

You ___________________________________________________________________ slowly.

3. It would be a good idea for you to leave early. (should)

You _____________________________________________________________________ early.

4. Driving without headlights is forbidden. (drive)

You ________________________________________________________________ headlights.

5. Let's go shopping in town. (about)

What _________________________________________________________________ in town?

6. You are not allowed to leave until the exam has finished. (mustn't)

You _______________________________________________________ the exam has finished.

7. I'd better start saving for my summer holiday. (should)

I ________________________________________________________ for my summer holiday.

8. You mustn't take photos in the cathedral. (allowed)

You ______________________________________________________ photos in the cathedral.

9. It wasn't necessary to get dressed up, so we didn't. (need)

We _____________________________________________________________ get dressed up.

/Round-up 6, Virginia Evans/


7. Paraphrase the following sentences, using modal verbs so that they are as similar in meaning as possible to the first ones.


1. The teacher gave me permission to leave the room.

The teacher said I could leave the room.

2. In the end, I couldnít make it to the party because I had too much work to do.


3. At school, she was the fastest runner in her class.


4. Although Iím good at physics, I donít think Iíll manage to pass the exam.


5. We werenít obliged to attend all the classes because some of them were optional.


6. If I donít find a job soon, I wonít be able to pay the bills.


7. ďAll telephone calls made from the office must be paid for,Ē said the manager.


8. The traffic warden said we werenít allowed to park the car outside the bank.


9. I think you can manage without a pullover I this winter.


10. Oxygen masks were essential when they got to the top of the mountain.


/Grammar and Vocabulary for First Certificate, Luke Prodromou/


8. Write what each person would say in each situation using modals. Sometimes more than one answer is possible.

1. A student has just come into the class and left the door open. It is noisy outside. You say to him: _________________________________________________________________________

2. You have opened the kitchen window to let in some fresh air. Your sister, who is recovering from a bad cold, comes in. You say to her: __________________________________________

3. Your friend wants to pay for your dinner. You tell her it's not necessary. ________________

4. A friend from Portugal phones to tell you she will be coming to England for two weeks next summer. You want her to stay with you. You say to her:________________________________

5. You're going on holiday. Your sister wants to take so many pairs of shoes that her suitcase wonít fasten. You ask if it is necessary. ____________________________________________ /Round-up 6, Virginia Evans/



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