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Complete the sentences using one of the words in the box.

amusing / amused

confusing / confused

exhausting / exhausted

annoying / annoyed

disgusting / disgusted

interesting / interested

boring / bored

exciting / excited


1. He works very hard. It's not surprising that he's always tired.

2. I've got nothing to do. I'm _________________.

3. The teacher's explanation was ________________. Most of the students didn't understand it.

4. The kitchen hadn't been cleaned for ages. It was really __________________.

5. I seldom visit art galleries. I'm not particularly ______________ in art.

6. There's no need to get __________________ just because I'm a few minutes late.

7. The lecture was _________________. I fell asleep.

8. I asked Emily if she wanted to come out with us but she wasn't __________________.

9. I’ve been working very hard all day and now I'm ____________.

10. I'm starting a new job next week. I'm quite ________________ about it.

11. Tom is very good at telling funny stories. He can be very_________________.

12. Liz is a very _________________ person. She knows a lot, she's travelled a lot and she’s done lots of different things.

3. Complete the adjectives in column A with –ed or –ing. Then complete the sentences with a phrase from column B.


a) When I am depress_____

b) If people are confus_____

c) It was a depress_____ film

d) I get quite annoy_____

e) Some people find it very relax_____

f) It was the most embarrass_____ experience

g) I was so tir_____

h) He was so excit_____

i) My job is very bor_____

j) We thought it would be more interest_____



1 and I wish I hadn't gone to see it.

2 I decided to have a short nap.

3 i have ever had.

4 I often get headaches.

5 so I'm looking for another one.

6 they sometimes scratch their head.

7 that he talked non-stop.

8 to have a leisurely hot bath.

9 to take a different route.

10 with people who can't stop fidgeting.


Vocabulary 4 Adjective + preposition

Some adjectives including adjectives with passive meaning (-ed) require a preposition if followed by nouns. These most common combinations of adjectives + prepositions must be remembered.

Adjective + about/with

angry / annoyed / furious ABOUT something

WITH somebody FOR doing something


· It's stupid to get angry about things that don't matter.

· Are you annoyed with me for being late?

excited / worried / upset / nervous / happy etc. ABOUT something:

· Are you excited about going on holiday next week?

· Carol is upset about not being invited to the party.


delighted / pleased / satisfied / disappointed WITH something:

· I was delighted with the present you gave me.

· Were you disappointed with your exam results?


Adjective + at / by / with


surprised / shocked / amazed / astonished AT / BY something

· Everybody was surprised at (or by) the news.

· I hope you weren't shocked by (or at) what I said.


impressed WITH / BY somebody / something:

· I'm very impresed with (or by) her English. It's very good.


fed up / bored WITH something:

· I don't enjoy my job any more. I'm fed up with it. / I'm bored with it.


Adjective + of / in


afraid / frightened / terrified / scared OF...:

· 'Are you afraid of dogs?' 'Yes, I'm terrified of them.'


tired OF...:

· Come on, let's go! I'm tired of waiting.


interested IN...:

· Are you interested in art?


1. Complete the sentences using one of the following adjectives + correct preposition:

interested excited impressed annoyed tired annoyed astonished bored

1. We're all excited about going on holiday next week.

2. What have I done wrong? Why are you ______________ me?

3. Why do you always get so _________________ little things?

4. I wasn't very _______________ the service in the restaurant. We had to wait ages before our food arrived.

5. John isn't happy at college. He says he's __________________ the course he's doing.

6. I had never seen so many people before. I was _______________ the crowds.

7. 'Do you want to watch the news on television?' 'No, I'm not ______________ the news.'

8. I'm ________________ doing the same thing every day. I need a change.

2. Put in the correct preposition.

1. I was delighted .......... the present you gave me.

2. We always have the same food every day. I'm fed up ......... it.

3. We enjoyed our holiday, but we were a bit disappointed .......... the hotel.

4. I was surprised .......... the way he behaved. It was completely out of character.

5. I've been trying to learn Spanish but I'm not very satisfied ......... my progress.

6. Linda doesn't look very well. I'm worried .......... her.

7. You look bored. You don't look interested .......... what I'm saying.

8. Are you angry .......... what happened?

9. The people next door are furious ........... us .......... making so much noise last night.

10. Jill starts her new job next week. She's quite excited .......... it.

11. I was shocked .......... what I saw. I'd never seen anything like it before.

12. The man we interviewed for the job was intelligent but we weren't very impressed .......... his appearance.

13. I was frightened .......... the height and couldn't move.


Vocabulary 5 BOOKS

1. Put each of the following words in its correct place in the passage below.











I love books. I love to read, I’m a real ...................., and I love to .................... in bookshops, just looking briefly at one book after another. I look at the ...................., the photos or drawings. If there are foreign or technical words in the book, I look at the .................... at the back for their meaning (unless they are explained in .................... at the bottom of the pages) and I look at the ...................., also at the back, which is a list of other books on the same subject. And I use the library a lot. I .................... two or three books a week, and I have to pay a .................... if I return them late. Friends often recommend books to me, and I also read book .................... in the newspapers. I don’t always agree with them, but anyway they let me know what new books are being ....................


2. Decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each space.


Why read books?

Is it worth reading books, (1) _______ nowadays there are so many other forms of (2) _______? Some people say that even (3) _______ books are expensive, and not everyone can (4) _______ books from a library. They might add that television is more (5) _______ and that viewers can relax as they watch their favourite (6) _______. All that may be true, but books are still very (7)_______. They encourage the reader to use his or her (8) _______ for a start. You can read a (9) _______ of a book, or just a few pages, and then stop. Of course, it may be so (10) _______ that you can't stop! There are many different kinds of books, so you can choose a crime (11)_______ or an autobiography, or a book which gives you interesting (12) _______. If you find it hard to choose, you can read (13) _______, or ask friends for ideas. Personally, I can't (14) _______ without books, but I can (15) _______ up television easily enough. You can't watch television at bus stops!


1 A in B or C why D since

2 A entertain B entertainment C entertained D entertaining

3 A paperback B the C so D when

4 A borrow B buy C lend D take

5 A excited B excitable C exciting D excitement

6 A ones B programmes C episodes D cereals

7 A too B public C live D popular

8 A imagination B author C index D amusement

9 A capital B head C chapter D cover

10 A current B imagined C interest D gripping

11 A history B novel C booklet D poetry

12 A advise B idea C information D fact

13 A announcements B gossip C reviews D prefaces

14 A do B make C have D take

15 A pick B look C give D turn

/From First Certificate Language Practice. Michael Vince, Paul Emmerson/


3. Fill in the gaps in the model answer below. Use one word in each gap.

The charts below show the number and types of books bought by men and women and four different age groups in the UK.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.


The charts give information about the types of books that British men and women and different age groups buy. The initial impression from the charts is that women tend to buy 1. more books than men overall although they buy slightly 2.__________ non-fiction books. The people that buy the 3. __________ books are in the 45+ age group.

Nearly 60% of women buy fiction, which is almost 4. __________ as many as the number of men who choose this type of book. Nevertheless, most age groups buy 5. __________ fiction books than non-fiction ones showing that non-fiction is generally 6. __________ popular than fiction.

The number of people buying fiction increases steadily from ages 16 to 45 with the 7.__________ number of books, at just over 40% of the age group, bought by 16- to 24-year-olds and the 8. __________ number, at just over 50%, bought by the over 45s.

However, the pattern is different for non-fiction. The number of books bought by 25- to 44-year-olds is 9. __________ lower than the number bought by 16- to 24-year-olds and those over 45. Just over 40% of 16- to 24-year-olds buy non-fiction, but this number is not 10. __________ high as the number of people aged 45 and over buying non-fiction, at nearly 60%. Only 31% of 35- to 44-year-olds buy non-fiction, and the number of 24- to 34-year-olds is 11. __________ lower at 28%.

/From Cambridge Grammar for IELTS, Diana Hopkins with Pauline Cullen/

Grammar Modal verbs ‘Obligation and Permission’


1. have to/don’t have to

Who can say the following statements?

A. Rod, retired man B. Jack, the teenager C. Laura, the businesswoman.


1. _C__ “I have to wear smart suits.”

2. ___ “I always have to be home before midnight.”

3. ___ “My dad usually has to work in the evenings.”

4. ___ “I don’t have to get up at 6.30 a.m. any more.”

5. ___ “My husband has to take our children to school every morning.”

6. ___ “My wife has to go to hospital every week.”

7. ___”I have to get good marks in my exams/”

8. ___ “My little sister doesn’t have to help with the housework.”

9. ___ “I often have to travel overseas.”


2. Write the questions using the statements from exercise 1.


1. Why do you have to wear smart suits?

Because I have to meet a lot of important people.

2. Why ____________________________ ?

Because I work for an international company.

3. Why _____________________________ ?

Because my parents say that I have to.

4. Why ______________________________ ?

Because I don’t have to catch the 7.32 a.m. train to work.”

5. Why ________________________________ ?

Because he’s a teacher and he has to mark homework.

6. Why ___________________________________ ?

Because she broke her arm and she has to have physiotherapy.

7. Why ___________________________________ ?

Because mum says that she is still too young.

8. Why ________________________________ ?

Because I start work very early and he doesn’t have to be at work until 9.30 a.m.

9. Why __________________________________ ?

Because I want to go to a good university.

3. Forms of have to. Complete the sentences with a suitable form of have to.


1. I’m having to work very hard at the moment because I have an exam next week.

2. You won’t have work hard after your exam. You can have a holiday.

3. My aunt’s a police officer so she _________ wear a uniform at work, but my uncle’s a taxi driver so he __________ wear one.

4. When I was a teenager, we _________ be home by nine o’clock. But we __________ take as many exams as teenagers nowadays.

5. My teeth hurt when I drink something cold. I think I _________ see the dentist soon.

6. Nobody enjoys _____________ get up at five o’clock in the morning.

7. __________ your grandfather ____________ start work when he was only fourteen?

8. You _______________ speak Russian to travel around Moscow, but it helps.

9. If you lose your job, ___________ we ________ sell the car?

10. ___________ we _______________ have fish for supper again?


4. Can and be allowed to. Who says these sentences?


1.“You can’t park there. I’ll give a parking ticket.”

A traffic warden in the street

2.“I’m sorry, sir, but you can’t get on the plane without a passport.”


3.“You aren’t allowed to look at your notes during the exam.”


4. “Shh. You can’t talk in here. People are studying.”


5. “You can take your seat-belt off now and walk around, but you aren’t allowed to smoke, and you can/t use personal computers or mobile phones.”


6. “We’re allowed to make one phone call a week, and we can go to the library, but we spend most of the time in our cells.”



5. Choosing the right form

Fill in the gaps 1-8 in the conversations below, using ways of expressing obligation and necessity you have learnt in this unit.

A: Do you fancy going for a pizza?

B: I can't, I’ve got to make some phone calls and do some packing. I just haven't got time.


A: Oh, I'm hopeless at this. I'm giving up.

B: Oh, you 1._____________ say that! It's just a matter of practice. Everyone finds driving

difficult at first.


A: What's the matter? What are you trying to do?

B: It's this word processor. I want to make a table with shaded boxes, but I can't get it to work.

A: Oh, you can do it like that, but you 2. _____________.Just use 'Autoformat'.


A: Any holiday plans?

B: Yes, I've booked a safari in Kenya. You've been, haven't you? What do I 3. _____________ take?


A: I 4. _____________ remember to phone Judy later. She's off to the States tomorrow and I want her to get me some bits and pieces.

B: Oh, is she? I'll try and remind you.


A: Here. This is for you.

B: Oh, Joe! It's beautiful, but I can't accept it. You made it, didn't you?

A: Yes, I did, and you 5. _____________ accept it. I absolutely 6. _____________ that you do.


A: What 7. _____________ you _____________ do in your new job?

B: It's not very different from the old one, but now I have more responsibility, that's all.


A: How is your brother these days?

B: Oh, not very good really. He's 8. _____________ give up work because of his bad back.

A: Oh, I am sorry to hear that.

Need.Absence of Necessity.


! 1. You needn’t do smth = it is not necessary that you do it, you don’t need to do it.


· You can come with me if you like but you needn’t come if you don’t want to. (= it is not necessary for you to come)

· We’ve got plenty of time. We needn’t hurry. (it is not necessary to hurry)


2. Instead of needn’t, you can use don’t/doesn’t need to. So you can say:

1. We needn’t hurry or 2. We don’t need to hurry.


Remember that we say “don’t need to do”, but “needn’t do”.

6. Complete the sentences with must, mustn’t or needn’t.


1. We haven’t got much time. We must hurry.

2. We’ve got plenty of time. We needn’t hurry.

3. We have enough food at home so we _________ go shopping today.

4. Jim gave me a letter to post. I ___________ remember to post it.

5. Jim gave me a letter to post. I ___________ forget to post it.

6. There’s plenty of time for you to make up your mind. You _____________ decide now.

7. You ____________ wash those tomatoes. They are already washed.

8. This is a valuable book. You ___________ look after it carefully.

9. “What sort of house do you want to buy? Something big?”

“Well, it _______________ be big – that’s not important. But it ___________ have a nice garden – that’s essential.”


7. Choose the alternative that best suits the context.


1. You _______________ speak with her about her decease. It depresses her.

a) mustn’t b) needn’t

2. The marketing team ____________work overtime now. They have done a lot to promote the product. It sells quite well at the moment.

a) mustn’t b) needn’t

3. Tell the children they ______________ shout. The baby is sleeping.

a) mustn’t b) needn’t

4. You _______________ have cash with you. You can pay by credit card.

a) mustn’t b) needn’t

5. Jenny left her job. She __________ work at the office any more. She published a collection of short stories which are quite popular.

a) mustn’t b) needn’t

6. You ________ forget to post the letter. It’s very important.

a) mustn’t b) needn’t

7. The guests ______________ wear evening suits. It’s a casual event.

a) mustn’t b) needn’t

8. You ____________ speak about our new project with them. It’s commercial secret.

a) mustn’t b) needn’t

Must - Have to - Have got to Must is used when the speaker decides what it is necessary to do. I must buy some new clothes. (I say so. I decide what to do.) Have to is used when the necessity comes from outside the speaker or when others decide for the speaker what it is necessary to do. He has to be at work at 9.00. (The boss says so.) Have got to has the same meaning as have to but it is used in spoken English. "Mum, I've got to go to the library." Must is stronger than have to and indicates urgency and importance. I must meet Jane tonight. (It's very urgent that I meet her.) I have to meet Jane tonight. (I need to meet her.) Must is used only in the present or future. I must go to the meeting tomorrow. It borrows the rest of its tenses from have to. She had to be present at the lecture last Monday.


8. Fill in: must or have to.

"Welcome on behalf of Newton Industries. I'd like to explain a few of the factory rules. Mr Newton has said we 1. _______________ wear overalls at all times. He wants us to arrive at 8 am and we 2. _______________ clock in. There is a possibility of working overtime but you 3. _______________ decide whether you want to work extra hours. Mr Newton insists that we 4. _______________ have fifteen-minute breaks every three or four hours but we 5. _______________ choose when we would like those breaks. There is a problem with parking. The city insists we 6. _______________ use the public garage. They believe

parking on the grass is too damaging to public property and I 7. _______________ say I agree. Finally, as far as health insurance is concerned, you 8. _______________ register as soon as possible. Are there any questions?"

/Round-up 6, Virginia Evans/

Mustn't - Needn't/don’t have to · mustn't (it's forbidden) You mustn't get off the bus before it stops. · needn't/don't have to (it isn't necessary) Today is a holiday - you needn't/don't have to go to work.

9. Complete the following sentences with must not or doesn't / don't have to.

Example A student doesn't have to do extra credit work if he chooses not to.


1. You ___________ use electrical appliances while you are in the bathtub.

2. This homework is optional; you ___________ do it.

3. Students ___________ go on the field trip to the art museum; they can go to the language lab instead.

4. You ___________ make a left turn if there are cars coming from the opposite direction.

5. You ___________ use a pen on standardized tests such as the TOEFL® test.

6. If you drop a class, you ___________ wait until late in the semester.

7. A student ___________ buy a gift for the teacher at the end of the course.

8. Students ___________ attend graduation, but most do.

/From Mosaic 2 Grammar, Patricia K. Werner, John P. Nelson/

10. Underline the correct words. Sometimes both options are possible.

1. In my office you have to / don't have to wear a suit but lots of people do.

2. These pills must not / don't have to be taken if you are under twelve years old.

3. I must / have to leave now because I have a meeting.

4. Notice to all conference participants: Please note that you must / have got to register
before entering the conference hall.

5. You mustn't / don't have to smoke inside but you can smoke outside.

6. When I was at university I must / had to write my assignments by hand because there
weren't any computers then.

7. British dog-owners have to / must have passports for their dogs when they travel

8. Next year I'll have to / 'll must get a job to pay back all the money I've borrowed from
the bank for my university fees.

/From Cambridge Grammar for IELTS, Diana Hopkins with Pauline Cullen/


11. In the United States, rules of politeness are strictest within certain institutions. A good example is the military. Restate the following sentences, using the affirmative or negative forms of these expressions of necessity: must, have to, have got to, had to.

Example It is forbidden for a common soldier to yell at a superior.

A common soldier must not yell at a superior.


1. It's necessary for soldiers to call officers "sir."

2. It's not necessary for officers to call soldiers "sir."

3. It's forbidden to call officers by their first names.

4. It's not necessary to bow to officers.

5. It's necessary to salute officers.

6. Many years ago, it was necessary for soldiers to treat officers almost like gods.

7. Many years ago, it wasn't necessary for officers to give soldiers any rights at all.

8. Today, it is necessary for soldiers to respect their officers, but it isn't necessary for them to be afraid of their officers.

/From Mosaic 2 Grammar, Patricia K. Werner, John P. Nelson/


12. Complete these sentences with must(n’t) or (don’t/doesn’t) have to (in the correct form).

1. Soldiers ___________ disobey a superior officer.

2. To stay alive, people ___________ breathe oxygen.

3. You ___________ finish your work on this project before you go on vacation. You'll probably lose your job if you don't.

4. If you have an aquarium, you ___________ give your tropical fish too much food or they'll die.

5. To be a successful mountain climber, you ___________ have a great deal of stamina.

6. Thank goodness we ___________ eat fish again tonight. Dad didn't catch any today.

7. You ___________ exert yourself. You're still not fully recovered from your surgery.

8. My room is a mess, but I ___________ clean it before I go out tonight. I can do it in the


9. We really ___________ help Marge move to her new apartment over the weekend. Not only is it too difficult for one person, but she still has her arm in a sling from her shoulder sprain a week ago.

10. Bill is in the darkroom developing the negatives of the photos he took on his last trip to

Peru. You ___________ open the door while he's there because the light will ruin the pictures.

/Understanding and Using English Grammar, Workbook, Betty Schrampfer Azar/


13. Permission and prohibition


Rewrite the signs below, using one of the following expressions: are/aren't allowed, can/can't, mustn't. Sometimes more than one answer is possible.

1. You _________________ to smoke in the toilets.

2. Customers _________________ use their credit cards.

3. You _________________ to visit before 5 p.m.

4. You _________________ go in unless you are a member.

5. You _________________ take any photographs.

6. You _________________ to stay up to two hours.

/From Intermediate Matters Workbook, Jan Bell, Roger Gower/


14. Obligation and permission

a. Read the article and put the correct expression from the box into the gaps.

cannot ride will not marry must dress must sweep may not visit may not travel must be must be at home should command can only keep


The 1901 Teaching Contract for Female Teachers




At the beginning of the 20th century female teachers had a very restricted life. There was a set of 'golden rules' that they had to abide by or risk instant dismissal. The rules were there to make sure teachers commanded authority and respect, but for women it meant sacrificing a lot of personal freedom. Nowadays it seems quite incredible that such strict rules should be enforced on female teaching staff.

1 You _________ during the term of your contract.

2 You _________ company with other women.

3 You _________ authority and respect from your pupils at all times.

4 You _________ between 8 p.m. and 6 a.m. unless attending a school function.

5 You _________ ice-cream parlours at any time.

6 You _________ in a carriage or automobile with any man unless he is your father or brother.

7 You _________ the schoolroom floor at least once daily.

8 You _________ in plain colours of grey or black and your dresses _________ no more than 1 inch above the ankles.

9 You _________ beyond the city limits without the permission of the chairman of the board of school governors.


b. Nancy Wilson was a teacher in Valley Road School, Sunderland from 1920 to 1929. Read her comments about it and complete them with a suitable past expression from below.



had to didn't have to was allowed (to) couldn't weren't allowed to were forbidden to


a. I was the youngest of six daughters and like many middle-class girls, I ______________

become a teacher. I had no choice. I ______________ earn a living any other way.

b. My day started at seven o'clock in the morning, when I ______________ sweep and dust the schoolroom, and we ______________ leave at the end of the day until this task was repeated.

c. I had two grey dresses and I wore one of them every day. It ______________ be grey. Black ______________ also ______________, but we ______________ wear anything

fashionable or colourful.

d. We ______________ ride in automobiles with any men except our father or brothers. This was no hardship because our family had no car.

e. The most ridiculous rule of all was the one about visiting ice-cream parlours. I can't imagine why we ______________ go there.

f. Eventually, when I was 29, I did meet and marry a young man, Jack. Then, of course, I ______________ give up teaching. You ______________ continue as a married woman.

/From New Headway Upper-Intermediate, Workbook/


15. Obligation, prohibition, permission (past)

A daughter (D) is asking her mother (M) about her life when she was young. Use expressions of obligation, prohibition and permission in the past to complete the dialogue below.

D: When you were young (1 wear) were you

allowed to wear make-up?

M: No, certainly not. Not until I was about 20. And

I (2 wear)________________________ the clothes that my mother bought me.

D: How awful! And (3 stay) ________________________ at school until you were 16?

M: No, it wasn't illegal to leave before 16, as it is now. In fact most children (4 leave) ________________________ school at 14 because their parents wanted them to earn money.

D: (5 go out) ________________________ with boys when you were my age?

M: Only if a grown-up was with you. You (6 go) ________________________ out alone to discos as you do now, oh no!

/From Intermediate Matters Workbook, Jan Bell, Roger Gower/

Unit 2

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