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Review of modern hardware.

Hardware (a slang «iron») – electronic and/or mechanical parts of the computer, excepting its software and data (information which it stores and processes).

Hardware – a complex of the electronic, electric and mechanical devices which are a part of system or a network. The hardware includes:

1. computers and logic units;

2. external devices and diagnostic equipment;

3. power equipment, batteries and accumulators.

So far in the world hundreds and thousands various models of computers are developed. These models differ from each other the device in the ways of coding of information, sets of possible actions on data processing, volume of remembered information and speed of its processing. Let's consider the schemes most widespread now – classification by generations (topic 3) corresponding to historical development of computer facilities, and classification by application.

Size – big computer, minicomputer, micro computer and personal computer (mass, business, entertaining and workstations), fig. 4.3. On specialization level – universal, specialized. On standard sizes – desktop, portable, pocket. On compatibility – an equipment room, compatibility at OS level, program compatibility, compatibility at level of data

The architecture is most the general principles of creation of the computer, realizing programmed control by work and interaction of its main functional knots.

Openness of architecture is a property easy to choose structure of external devices for the computer, i.e. to configure it depending on a circle of solved tasks.

Base configuration of the personal computer.

The configuration is a structure of the equipment. The configuration of modern personal computers can be changed flexibly as required. Into structure of a base configuration enter: system block, monitor, keyboard, and mouse





Fig 4.3 – computers classification

Control questions:

1. What is «von Neumann's principle»?

2. What do actuation devices represent?

3. What are the blocks of Computers?

4. What is the arithmetic and logic unit (ALU)?

5. What are the control units?

6. What information does the team contain?

7. What teams are there?

8. How are the main devices of Computers connected?

9. What functions are carried out by memory?

10. What functions are carried out by the processor?

11. What are the interruptions?

12. What interruptions are there?

13. What is the memory of the computer?

14. What is the input equipment?

15. What is the output equipment?

16. What does the hierarchy of memory represent?

17. What is the cache memory?

18. What does the principle of placement of blocks in a cache memory define?

19. How is the main memory organized?

20. What are the principles of the organization of virtual memory?

Date: 2015-12-24; view: 1635

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