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Task 1. Read and translate the text. Learn the words given after the text.

When giving a general description of a ship one should first mention its main body which is called the hull. The hull is divided into three main parts: the foremost part is called the bow, the rearmost part is called the stern and the part between the bow and the stern is called the midships. The ship's hull is limited by the main deck, the sides and the bottom. It is made up of frames covered with plating.

Inside the hull is divided into a number of watertight compartments by decks and bulkheads. Bulkheads are vertical steel walls passing across the ship and along. Steel decks divide the hull horizontally. The decks which divide cargo spaces are called 'tween decks.

The hull contains the engine-room, cargo and other spaces and a number of tanks. In dry cargo ships the cargo space below the main deck is divided into holds, in liquid cargo ships it is divided into tanks. The openings cut in the main deck which give access to holds are called hatches. The hatches are equipped with automatic hatch-covers.

At the fore end of the hull are the fore peak tanks and at the after end are the after peak tanks. They are used for fresh water and water ballast. The space between the holds and the bottom of the hull contains double bottom tanks. These are used for ballast water and fuel.

When one faces the bow, the left-hand side is called the port side and the right-hand side is called the starboard side. The part of the hull below water is the ship's underwater body. The distance between the waterline and the main deck is the vessel's freeboard.

All the ship's parts above the main deck are known as superstructures which usually include the navigating bridge, the radio room, the crew's quarters, the sick bay, the funnel, the radar mast, etc.

The raised part of the deck in the bows is called the forecastle and its after raised part is a poop. On the main deck there are cargo handling facilities (derricks, cranes, cargo winches, Samson posts, etc.), and also the windlass (on the forecastle), the capstan (on the poop) and bitts.




Task 1. Read and translate the text. Learn the words given after the text.

There can be different ways of classifying merchant ships. Such ships can be classified according to what they carry. Most are designed to carry cargo, but some still carry passengers.

On the one hand, cargo ships may be divided into two basic types: those carrying dry cargo and those carrying liquid cargo. Multi-deck vessels are a traditional type of dry cargo ship. Their holds are divided horizontally by one or two 'tween decks. Dry bulk cargo is carried in bulk carriers.

Examples of liquid cargo carriers are oil tankers, liquified natural gas (LNG) carriers and chemical carriers.

On the oilier hand, cargo ships may be divided into universal ships (general cargo vessels) designed to carry principal different types of cargo and specialized ships designed to carry one type of cargo (e.g., bulk carriers, container ships, timber carriers, reefers, oil tankers, Ro-Ro ships, etc.). Of course, when it is necessary, specialized vessels can carry general cargo, and vice versa, universal ships can carry dry bulk cargo in their holds.

In comparison with cargo vessels, passenger ships are few in number and types. Passenger liners are the traditional type of passenger ship, though nowadays they are rather few in number. Cruise ships are another type of passenger vessel. In many cases cruise ships are converted passenger liners. These days' ferries are the most common type of the passenger vessel. Many of them are designed to carry vehicles.

Date: 2015-12-24; view: 4213

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