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Ascending Head Scandent Head mixed prominence head

MEANING AND USAGE OF HEADS

FThe Gradually Descending Stepping Head ( always diffuse/double-peak or mixed prominence) is stylistically neutral, i.e. non-emotionally coloured, even monotonous, so it is mostly used in formal conversations, lecturing, didactic monologues, and in reading written texts. It gives the feeling of seriousness and weight to the utterance.

e.g. The 'Gradually De'scending 'Stepping 'Head is sty'listically ‘neutral.

F This head may achieve extra prominence by breaking the downward movement and pronouncing one of the stresssed syllables on a rather high pitch level. Such a head is calledThe Broken Descending Stepping Head or the head with the "special" or "accidental" rise. The words that normally receive special prominence are the so-called "itensifiers", which express an unusual degree of quantity, quality, size or unexpexted and extraordinary actions.

e.g. Nouns: crowds, hundreds, thousands;

verbs: cry, push, shout;

adverbs: much, more, too, very, immediately.

I'm 'much ''too ` young. or I'm 'muchá too` young.

FThe High Level Head ( always one-peak ) sounds airy and light, so it is generally used in informal lively conversations to express a friendly attitude.

e.g. ˡ Who would he `choose?

I'm ˡcalled `Paula.

FThe Low Level Head ( one-peak, diffuse or mixed prominence) is frequently combined with low narrow tones, falling or rising, conveying a cool, phlegmatic dissaproving and disinterested attitude of the speaker. This head is also typical in parenthesis/appositions which are used in the middle of a sentence to express either the same information as the previous sense-group ("old information") or are used as an afterthought. This head is sometimes referred to as Low Key.

e.g. ‚Brussels| the ˌcapital of ‚Belgium| is the 'headquarters of the 'Common ` Market.

EMPHATIC HEADS

FThe Ascending Stepping Head (always diffuse/double-peak or mixed prominence) is often combined with the high-pitched tones, falling or rising. There is often a feeling of surprise, protest, or impatience. It can be used to express emphasis for contrast, the contrasted word being the nucleus of a sense group.

e.g. ÇWhy are you 'critisizing `me?

FThe Sliding Head( one-peak, diffuse or mixed prominence) is mostly used to itensify the meaning of the utterance. Sentences pronounced with the Sliding Head sound livelier, more expressive and more emotionally coloured as compared with the Stepping Head and the High Head, so this head is frequently used in informal talks or when there is a need to emphasize the whole utterance. The Sliding Head is frequently combined with Fall-Rise.

e.g. They ↷say the ↷weather is ↷better inˇ May.

FThe Scandent Head ( one-peak, diffuse or mixed prominence) expresses a wide range of emotions, usually itensifying the meaning of the nuclear tone. It may sound encouraging and reassuring in combination with Low Rise, surprised with High Rise, cheerful and admiring or irritated with High Fall. Women use this head more frequently than men. Patterns with the Scandent Head are often used in telling fairy tales.



e.g. ÌDid youÌhear the. À gossip?

ÌOnce uÌpon a. À time…

 

RISING TONES

All rising tones in English sound non-final, incomplete, indefinite, non-categoric.In this meaning they are opposed to falling tones which all express definiteness and completeness.

Rising tones are typically used in general (yes/no) guestions, in echoing questions, in requests, and in non-final utterances.The mostfrequentlyusedvarietiesof the rising tones areLow Wide Rise (LWR) and Mid Wide Rise (MWR).The other varieties of the rising tones are Low Narrow Rise (LNR), High Narrow Rise (HNR), and High Wide Rise (HWR).

       
   

The rising tones have two structural variants:

1)the rise of the voice is realised on 2) the stressed syllable(nucleus)

the last stressed syllable is pronounced on a steady pitch and

in the utterance the rise is carried by the following

 
 

unsressed syllable(s)

 
 

       
   
 

       
   
 

# TONE DESCRIPTION COMBINABILITY MEANING AND USAGE
LNR The rise of the voice starts from the bottom of the voice range and ends about the mid-low pitch level. 1)without a head - in monosyllable utterances; 2) with (low pre-head)+ Low Head. 1)encouraging further conversation; 2)casual, detached, calm, resentful, perfunctuary.
LWR The rise of the voice starts from the bottom of the voice range and ends above the middle of it. 1)without a head; 2)with (high pre-head) + High Head; 3)with the Descending Stepping Head; 4) with the Ascending Head; 5) with the Scandent Head. 1) non-categoric,hesitant, slightly surprised; 2) friendly,warm,genuinely interested; 3) non-final, incomplete; 4)amiable,kind, benevolent, with a note of superiority and self-assuarance; 5) soothing, encouraging, reassuaring. Typical usage: - General (yes/no?) questions and the first part of alternative(or?) questions - Question tags - Requests Occasional usage: -Special (wh) questions (often addressed to children) -Exclamations -Statements
MWR The voice rises from a mid-low to a high pitch comprising two zones of the voice range. 1)without a head; 2)with (high pre-head) + High Head; 3) with the Ascending Head;   1) questioning, casual, light, tentative; 2) businesslike, formal light, airy; 3) puzzled, unpleasently surprised, disapproving, disbelieving, even threatening. Typical usage: -General (yes/no?) questions, the first part of alternative (or?) questions and question tags. -Vocatives (calling)
HNR The rise of the voice starts from the mid-high level and ends at the top of the voice range. 1)without a head; 2)with (high pre-head) + High Head; 3) with the Scandent Head;   1) questioning, asking for repetition, echoing. 1) Echoing, calling for a repetition; 2) Highly surprised, with a note of incredulity. Typical usage: -Echoing(?!) questions with indirect or direct (statement-type) word order  
  HWR The rise of the voice starts from the bottom and ends at the top of the voice range comprising all three zones. 1) without a head; 2) with (low pre-head)+ Low Head. 3)with the Descending Stepping Head;   1) surprised, astonished, asking for explanation. 2) Surprised, bewildered, often protesting and cont5radicting, demanding more information; 3) Conciliatory, amiacable. Typical usage: -Echoing(?!) questions with indirect or direct (statement-type) word order  


Date: 2015-12-18; view: 1067


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